Systems of Many Particles

  • Russell K. Hobbie
  • Bradley J. Roth


It is possible to identify all the external forces acting on a simple system and use Newton’s second law (F = ma) to calculate how the system moves. (Applying this technique in a complicated case such as the femur may require the development of a simplified model, because so many muscles, other bones, and ligaments apply forces at so many different points.) In an atomic-size system consisting of a single atom or molecule, it is possible to use the quantum-mechanical equivalent of F = ma, the Schrödinger equation, to do the same thing. (The Schrödinger equation takes into account the wave properties that are important in small systems.)


Heat Capacity Gibbs Free Energy Entropy Change Thermal Contact Left Half 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell K. Hobbie
    • 1
  • Bradley J. Roth
    • 2
  1. 1.Professor of Physics, Emeritus University of Minnesota
  2. 2.Associate Professor of Physics Oakland UniversityOakland

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