Head injuries are common among children, and they result in a significant number of visits to emergency departments and physicians’ offices each year. In children 15yr old and under, the estimated incidence of traumatic brain injury is 180 per 100,000 children per year, totaling more than 1 million injuries annually in the United States and accounting for more than 10% of all visits to emergency departments (1). A recent study conducted in emergency departments in Canada demonstrated that 3% of all sport-related injuries were head injuries (2). The majority of sport-related head injuries occurred in individuals less than 20yr of age. Head injuries represented 2.8% of all sport injuries in children less than 10yr old, 3.7% in 10–14yr olds, and 4.2% in 15–19yr olds (2). Head injuries as a result of sport participation include minor injuries such as contusions, lacerations, and superficial hematomas, as well as more serious injuries, including concussions, skull fractures, and intracranial hemorrhages. Head injuries can occur in both organized sports, such as football, hockey, basketball, and soccer, as well as recreational activities, including biking, skiing, skateboarding, and rollerblading.


Head Injury Subdural Hematoma Epidural Hematoma Skull Fracture Compute Tomogra 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    McCrory P, Collie A, Anderson V, Davis G. Can we manage sport-related concussion in children the same as in adults? Br J Sports Med 2004;38: 516–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kelly KD, Lissel HL, Rowe BH, Vincenten JA, Voaklander DC. Sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in the emergency department. Clin J Sport Med 2001;11:77–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Emergency Paediatrics Section, Canadian Paediatric Society. The management of children with head trauma. CMAJ 1990;142(9)949–952. Reaffirmed January 2002.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith BW. Head Injuries. In: Anderson SJ and Sullivan JA, eds. Care of the Young Athlete. American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons; 2000:171–178.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cantu RC. Return to play guidelines after a head injury. Clinics in Sport Med 1998;17(1)45–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Warren WL, Bailes JE. On the field evaluation of athletic head injuries. Clinics in Sport Med 1998;17(1)13–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hunte G. Sporting emergencies. Brukner P and Khan K, eds. In: Clinical Sports Medicine. 2nd ed. Roseville NSW; McGraw-Hill: 2001:713–725.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Canadian Paediatric Society, Healthy Active Living Committee [Principal author: Laura Purcell]. Identification and management of children with sportrelated concussion. Paediatr Child Health 2006;11(7)420–428. Also available at (Version current at June 4, 2007).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Teasdale G, Jennett B. Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. A practical scale. Lancet 1974;2:81–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCrory P, Johnston K, Meeuwisse W, et al. Summary and Agreement Statement of the 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport, Prague 2004. Clin J Sports Med 2005;15(2)48–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maddocks DL, Dicker GD, Saling MM. The assessment of orientation following concussion in athletes. Clin J Sport Med 1995;5:32–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCrea M, Kelly JP, Randolph C, et al. Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC): On-Site Mental Status Evaluation of the Athlete. J Head Trauma Rehab 1998;13:27–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Committee on Quality Improvement, American Academy of Paediatrics. The management of minor closed head injury in children. Peds 1999;6:1407–1415.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aubry M, Cantu R, Dvorak J, et al. Summary and Agreement Statement of the 1st International Symposium on Concussion in Sport, Vienna 2001. Clin J Sports Med 2002;12:6–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Johnston KM, Ptito A, Chankowsky J, Chen JK. New frontiers in diagnostic imaging in concussive head injury. Clin J Sport Med 2001;11:166–175.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yeates KO, Luria J, Bartkowski H, Rusin J, Martin L, Bigler, ED. Postconcussive symptoms in children with mild closed head injuries. J Head Trauma Rehabil 1999;14(4)337–350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grindel SH, Lovell, MR and Collins, MW. The assessment of sport-related concussion: The evidence behind neuropsychological testing and management. Clin J Sport Med 2001;11(3)134–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Collie A, Maruff P, Makdissi M, McCrory P, McStephen M, Darby D. Cog-Sport: Reliability and correlation with conventional cognitive tests used in postconcussion medical evaluations. Clin J Sport Med 2003;13:28–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janusz JA et al. Construct validity of the ImPACT post-concussion scale in children. Poster presentation at the 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport. Prague November 5–6, 2004.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gioia GA, Gioia GA, Gilstein K, Iverson G. Neuropsychological management of concussion in children and adolescents: Effect of age and gender on ImPACT. Poster presentation at the 2nd International Symposium on Concussion in Sport. Prague November 5–6, 2004.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Valovich McLeod TC, Perrin DH, Guskiewicz KM, Shultz SJ, Diamond R, Gansneder BM. Serial administration of clinical concussion assessments and learning effects in healthy young athletes. Clin J Sport Med 2004;14(5)287–295.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Putukian M, Harmon KG. Head injuries. In: Birrer RB, Griesemer BA, Cataletto MB, eds. Pediatric Sports Medicine for Primary Care. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2002:266–290.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Proctor MR, Cantu RC. Head and neck injuries in young athletes. Clin Sport Med 2000;19(4)693–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kissick J, Johnston K. Position statement: Guidelines for the assessment and management of sport-related concussion. Clin J Sports Med 2000;10(3)209–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bazarian JJ, Veenema T, Brayer AF, Lee E. Knowledge of concussion guidelines among practitioners caring for children. Clin Peds 2001;40(4)207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Genuardi FJ, William DK. Inappropriate discharge instructions for youth athletes hospitalized for concussion. Peds 1995;95(2)216–218.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Poirier MP, Wadsworth MR. CME review article: Sports-related concussions. Ped Emerg Care 2000;16(4)278–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kaut KP, DePompei R, Kerr J, Congeni J. Reports of head injury and symptom knowledge among college athletes: Implications for assessment and educational intervention. Clin J Sport Med 2003;13:213–221.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Delaney JS, Lecroix VJ, Leclerc S, Johnston KM. Concussions among university football and soccer players. Clin J Sport Med 2002;12:331–338.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    LeBlanc JC, Huybers S. Improving bicycle safety: The role of paediatricians and family physicians. Paediatr Child Health 2004;9(5)315–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cook A, Sheikh A. Trends in serious head injuries among English cyclists and pedestrians. Injury Prevention 2003;9:266–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Thompson DC, Rivara FP, Thompson RS. Effectiveness of bicycle safety helmets in preventing head injuries: A case-control study. JAMA 1996;276: 1968–1973.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thompson RS, Rivara FP. Protective equipment for in-line skaters. N Engl J Med 1996;335:1680–1682.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McCrory P. Minor head injury in sport. In: Brukner P and Khan K, eds. Clinical Sports Medicine. 2nd ed. Roseville NSW: McGraw-Hill; 2001: 189–194.Google Scholar
  35. 37.
    Bernhardt DT. Football: A case-based approach to mild traumatic brain injury. Pediatric Annals 2000;29(3)31–35.Google Scholar
  36. 38.
    Hagel B, Meeuwisse W. Risk compensation: A “side effect” of sport injury prevention? Clin J Sport Med 2004;14:193–196.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 39.
    Landry GL. Central nervous system trauma: Management of concussions in athletes. Pediatr Clin N Am 2002;49:723–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura Purcell
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Family MedicineSchulich School of Medicine at the University of Western OntarioCanada
  2. 2.Children’s Hospital of Western OntarioCanada
  3. 3.Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic LondonCanada

Personalised recommendations