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The discovery in 1973 that an optical soliton [1] on a single wavelength beam can exist in fiber is one of the most significant events since the perfection of low-loss optical fiber communication. This means that, in principle, data pulses may be transmitted in a fiber without degradation forever. This soliton discovery sets the ultimate goal for optical fiber communication on a single wavelength beam.

Another significant event is the development of wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) transmission in a single mode fiber [2]. This means that multiple beams of different wavelengths, each carrying its own data load, can propagate simultaneously in a single mode fiber. This WDM technique provides dramatic increase in the bandwidth of a fiber. However, because of the presence of complex nonlinear interaction between co-propagating pulses on different wavelength beams, it is no longer certain that WDM solitons can exist.

The existence of solitons is a blissful event in nature. It is a marvel that the delicate balance between the dispersion effect and the nonlinear effect can allow a specially shaped optical pulse to propagate in the fiber without degradation. This is called a temporal soliton [1]. It is an equal marvel that the delicate balance between the diffraction effect and the nonlinear effect can also allow a specially shaped pulse to propagate in a planar waveguide or array waveguides without degradation. This is called a spatial soliton [3]. They occur only on a single wavelength beam.

Keywords

Wavelength Division Multi Pulse Compression Group Velocity Dispersion Dark Soliton Dielectric Waveguide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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