Prodrugs pp 125-155 | Cite as

Prodrug approaches to ophthalmic drug delivery

  • Tomi Järvinen
  • Riku Niemi
Part of the Biotechnology: Pharmaceutical Aspects book series (PHARMASP, volume V)


Ophthalmic medications are administered either systematically or locally to the eye. In order to treat ocular disorders, the topical delivery of eye drops into the lower cul-de-sac of the eye is preferred since the drug effects are localized and less drug enters into the systemic circulation (i.e., systemic side effects are minimized). In addition, adequate ocular drug concentrations may be difficult to achieve with systemic administration, as the blood-ocular barrier effectively restricts the access of drugs from systemic circulation into intra-ocular targets.


Aqueous Humor Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor Corneal Permeability Ocular Bioavailability Lipophilic Prodrug 
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Copyright information

© American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomi Järvinen
    • 1
  • Riku Niemi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical ChemistryUniversity of KuopioFinland

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