Background in Statistics
Statistics is the science that formalizes the process of making inferences from observations. Basic to this process of formalization is the concept of a statistical model. In general, a statistical model is an attempt to provide a mathematical simplification of the mechanism that produced the observations. Statistical models are useful since they allow investigation and optimization of the process of analyzing the observations in a context that is wider than the context of the outcome of the specific trial that is being analyzed. For example, it opens the door to considerations such as: “Had we had the opportunity to try a specific inferential procedure on other datasets, all generated by the same statistical mechanism as the one we observe, how would our procedure perform on the average? What would be the probability of drawing an incorrect conclusion?” Such questions are impossible to address unless we adopt a wider point of view.
KeywordsNull Hypothesis Binomial Distribution Central Limit Theorem Standard Normal Distribution Null Distribution
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