High-altitude research

Part of the Springer Praxis Books book series (PRAXIS)


A mere 60 years ago, not a single artificial satellite was orbiting the Earth. In fact, the programmes that would eventually put them there had hardly been set in motion. In the post-war years it was known that rockets alone could provide the sustained thrust necessary to loft anything into space, but they were a relatively new and basically unsophisticated technology. In the latter part of the Second World War they had been used as weapons of destruction, and for this reason alone the military was interested in their potential use as ballistic missiles capable of carrying warheads.


Cosmic Radiation Radish Seed Rocket Launch Space Biology Black Mouse 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    “Montgolfier Brothers”, Wikipedia on-line encyclopaedia. Website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgolfier Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    James Glaisher, Camille Flammarion, W. de Fonveille and Gaston Tissandier, Travels in the Air, Richard Bentley & Son, London, 1871 (translated from 1867 French edition).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Reverend John M. Bacon, Dominion of the Air: The Story of Aerial Navigation (Chapter 19), Cassell, London, 1902.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Lloyd Mallan, Men, Rockets and Space Rats, Julian Messner, New York, 1958Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Dieter E. Beischer and Alfred R. Fregly, Animals and Man in Space: A Chronology and Annotated Bibliography through the Year 1960, U.S. Naval School of Aviation Medicine, Pensacola, FL, for the Office of Naval Research, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C., 1964.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Interview with David G. Simons conducted by Center Director Gregory P. Kennedy for the Alamogordo Space Center Oral History Program. Interview conducted 30 September 1987 at the International Space Hall of Fame.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    W.D. Murray, “A Gondola for Physiological Research in the Atmosphere,” Journal of Aviation Medicine, issue 25, 1954, pp. 354–360.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    David Simons and Charles Steinmetz, “The 1954 Aeromedical Field Laboratory Balloon Flights: Physiological and Radiobiological Aspects,” Journal of Aviation Medicine, issue 27, 1956, pp. 100–110.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    H.F. Harlow, A.M. Schrier and D.G. Simons, “Exposure of Primates to Cosmic Radiation above 90,000 Feet,” Journal of Comparative Physiology, issue 49, 1956, pp. 195–200.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    I.J. Lebish, D.G. Simons, H. Yagoda, P. Jannsen and W. Haymaker, “Observations on Mice Exposed to Cosmic Radiation in the Stratosphere: A Longevity and Pathological Study of 85 Mice,” Military Medicine, issue 124, 1959, pp. 835–847.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    James P. Henry, Biomedical Aspects of Space Flight, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1966.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    David Simons and Don A. Schanche, Man High: 24 Hours on the Edge of Space, Sidgwick & Jackson, London, 1960.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    James S. Hanrahan and David Bushnell, Space Biology: The Human Factors in Space Flight, Basic Books, New York, 1960.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    “Cumulus (Kumulus)”, Encyclopedia Astronautica. Website: http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/kumulus.htm Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    “Zucker Rocket”, Encyclopedia Astronautica. Website: http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/zucocket.htm Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    George Meeter, The Holloman Story: Eyewitness Accounts of Space Age Research, The University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM, 1967.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Gregory P. Kennedy, Report IAA-87-651, The Aeromedical Field Laboratory: Space Medicine at Holloman Air Force Base, The Space Center, Alamogordo, NM, 1988, p. 4.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    David Bushnell (ed.), Report, History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics, Part IV: Other Work on the Escape Problem, U.S. Air Force Missile Development Center, Wright Field, OH, December 1958, pp. 2–4.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Clyde Bergwin and William Coleman, Animal Astronauts: They Opened the Way to the Stars, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1963, pp. 49–50.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Edward Dittmer, Oral History Interview conducted by George M. House, Curator, Alamogordo Space Center, NM, 29 April 1987.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Space Log magazine, article Stapp Honored at ISHF, vol. 4, no. 3, July 1987, p. 2.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    John Paul Stapp, “Rocket Sled,” Above and Beyond: The Encyclopedia of Aviation and Space Sciences, p. 1986, New Horizons, Chicago, 1968.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Joseph W. Kittinger, Jr. and Martin Caidin, The Long, Lonely Leap, E.P. Dutton & Co., New York, 1961, p. 18.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    David Bushnell, History of Research in Space Biology and Biodynamics, Part I, The Beginnings of Research in Space Biology at the Air Force Missile Development Center, 1946–1952, Air Force Missile Development Center, Holloman Air Force Base, Alamogordo, NM, 1955.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    David Bushnell, The Aeromedical Field Laboratory: Mission, Organization and Track-Test Programs, 1958–1960. Air Force Missile Development Center, Holloman Air Force Base, Alamogordo, NM, 1961.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Gregory P. Kennedy, Report IAA-89-741, Mercury Primates, The Space Center, Alamogordo, NM, 1989, p. 5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Praxis Publishing Ltd, Chichester, UK 2007

Personalised recommendations