The high summer of Soviet planetary exploration, 1975–1986
Venera 8 marked the limit to what the Soviet Union could achieve with the 3MV series and the 8K78M launcher. The 3MV series had been kept going for Venus probes over 1965–72 even thought it was no longer used for Mars probes. Although Minister Afanasayev had decided to move on to a new type of interplanetary spacecraft, it had already been decided to adapt the Mars 2–7 type of spacecraft to the exploration of Venus. This was formally called the 4V1 series, although in practice the term was little used.
KeywordsLanding Site Radio Occultation Cloud Layer Disk Brake Cloud Particle
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