Ethanol Production: Energy, Economic, and Environmental Losses

  • David Pimentel
  • Tad Patzek
  • Gerald Cecil
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 189)


The supply of “conventional” oil is projected to peak before 2010, and its decline thereafter cannot be compensated fully by other liquid fuels (Youngquist and Duncan 2003). The United States critically needs to develop liquid fuel replacements for oil in the near future. The search for alternative liquid fuels has focused on the use of biomass.


Ethanol Production Liquid Fuel Biological Oxygen Demand Fossil Energy Corn Production 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Pimentel
    • 1
  • Tad Patzek
    • 2
  • Gerald Cecil
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Agriculture and Life SciencesCornell UniversityIthacaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

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