Advertisement

Seeding, Evolutionary Growth and Reseeding: Constructing, Capturing and Evolving Knowledge in Domain-Oriented Design Environments

  • Gerhard Fischer
Chapter
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT)

Abstract

We live in a world characterized by evolution — i.e., by ongoing processes of development, formation, or growth in both natural and human-created systems. Biology tells us that complex, natural systems are not created all at once but must instead evolve over time. We are becoming increasingly aware that evolutionary processes are ubiquitous and critical for technological innovations as well. This is particularly true for complex software systems because these systems do not necessarily exist in a technological context alone but instead are embedded within dynamic human organizations.

The Center for LifeLong Learning and Design (L3D) at the University of Colorado has been involved in research on software design and other design domains for more than a decade. We understand software design as an evolutionary process in which system requirements and functionality are determined through an iterative process of collaboration among multiple stakeholders. Requirements cannot be completely specified before system development occurs. Our research focuses on the following claims: software systems (I) must evolve because they cannot be completely designed prior to use, (2) must evolve to some extent at the hands of the users, and (3) must be designed for evolution.

Our theoretical work builds upon our existing knowledge of design processes and focuses on a software process model and architecture specifically for systems that can evolve. Our theories are instantiated and assessed through the development and evolution of domain-oriented design environments (DODEs) — software systems that support design activities within particular domains and are built specifically to evolve.

Keywords

design domain-oriented design environments evolution end-user modification knowledge construction computer network design 

References

  1. [Ambach, Perrone, Repenning 1995]
    J. Ambach, C. Perrone and A. Repenning, Remote Expioratoriums: Combining Networking and Design Environments, Computers and Education, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 163–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [CSTB 1990]
    Computer Science and Technology Board, Scaling Up: A Research Agenda for Software Engineering, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 281–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [Curtis, Krasner, Iscoe 1988]
    B. Curtis, H. Krasner and N. Iscoe, A Field Study of the Software Design Process for Large Systems, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 31, No. 11, pp. 1268–1287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [Ehn 1988]
    P. Ehn, Work-Oriented Design of Computer Artifacts, Almquist & Wiksell International, Stockholm, Sweden.Google Scholar
  5. [Eisenberg, Fischer 1994]
    M. Eisenberg and G. Fischer, Programmable Design Environments: Integrating End-User Programming with Domain-Oriented Assistance, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI’94 Conference Proceedings (Boston, MA), pp. 431–437.Google Scholar
  6. [Fischer 1991]
    G. Fischer, Supporting Learning on Demand with Design Environments, in L. Birnbaum (ed), Proceedings of the International Conference on the Learning Sciences 1991 (Evanston, IL), Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, Charlottesville, VA, pp. 165–172.Google Scholar
  7. [Fischer 1994a]
    G. Fischer, Domain-Oriented Design Environments, Automated Software Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 177–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [Fischer 1994b]
    G. Fischer, Turning Breakdowns into Opportunities for Creativity, Knowledge-Based Systems, Special Issue on Creativity and Cognition, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 221–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [Fischer, Ambach, Arias 1995]
    G. Fischer, J. Ambach and E. Arias, Domain-Oriented Design Environments: Conceptual Frameworks, Architectures, and Systems Supporting the Evolution of Complex Systems, Proposal to ARPA’s EDCS Program, University of Colorado at BoulderGoogle Scholar
  10. [Fischer, Girgensohn 1990]
    G. Fischer and A. Girgensohn, End-User Modifiability in Design Environments, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, HCI’90 Conference Proceedings (Seattle, WA), New York, pp. 183–191.Google Scholar
  11. [Fischer et al. 1992]
    G. Fischer et al., Supporting Indirect, Collaborative Design with Integrated Knowledge-Based Design Environments, Human Computer Interaction, Special Issue on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 281–314.Google Scholar
  12. [Fischer et al. 1991a]
    G. Fischer et al., The Role of Critiquing in Cooperative Problem Solving, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 123–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [Fischer et al. 1991b]
    G. Fischer et al., Making Argumentation Serve Design, Human Computer Interaction, Vol. 6, No. 3–4, pp. 393–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [Fischer et al. 1994]
    G. Fischer et al., Seeding, Evolutionary Growth and Reseeding: Supporting Incremental Development of Design Environments, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI’94 Conference Proceedings (Boston, MA), pp. 292–298.Google Scholar
  15. [Fischer et al. 1995]
    G. Fischer et al., Beyond Object-Oriented Development: Where Current Object-Oriented Approaches Fall Short, Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 79–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [Greenbaum, Kyng 1991]
    J. Greenbaum and M. Kyng, Design at Work: Cooperative Design of Computer Systems, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar
  17. [Grudin 1991]
    J. Grudin, Interactive Systems: Bridging the Gaps Between Developers and Users, Computer, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 59–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [Grudin 1994]
    J. Grudin, Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: History and focus, IEEE Computer, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp. 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [Lee 1992]
    L. Lee, The Day The Phones Stopped, Donald I. Fine, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  20. [Maiden, Sutcliffe 1992]
    N.A.M. Maiden and A.G. Sutcliffe, Exploiting Reusable Specifications through Analogy, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 55–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [Mittal, Dym 1985]
    S. Mittal and C.L. Dym, Knowledge Acquisition from Multiple Experts, AI Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 32–36.Google Scholar
  22. [Nardi 1993]
    B.A. Nardi, A Small Matter of Programming, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  23. [Norman 1986]
    D.A. Norman, Cognitive Engineering, in D.A. Norman and S.W. Draper (eds.), User Centered System Design, New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 31–62.Google Scholar
  24. [Ostwald 1996]
    J. Ostwald, Knowledge Construction in Software Development: The Evolving Artifact Approach, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado at Boulder.Google Scholar
  25. [Polanyi 1966]
    M. Polanyi, The Tacit Dimension, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.Google Scholar
  26. [Prieto-Diaz, Arango 1991]
    R. Prieto-Diaz and G. Arango, Domain Analysis and Software Systems Modeling, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA.Google Scholar
  27. [Reeves 1993]
    B.N. Reeves, Supporting Collaborative Design by Embedding Communication and History in Design Artifacts, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado at Boulder.Google Scholar
  28. [Repenning, Sumner 1995]
    A. Repenning and T. Sumner, Agentsheets: A Medium for Creating Domain-Oriented Visual Languages, Computer, Vol. No. pp. 17–25.Google Scholar
  29. [Resnick, Levine, Teasley 1991]
    L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine and S.D. Teasley, Perspectives on Socially Shared Cognition, American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [Rittel 1984]
    H. Rittel, Second-Generation Design Methods, in N. Cross (ed), Developments in Design Methodology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 317–327.Google Scholar
  31. [Salasin, Shrobe 1995]
    J. Salasin and H. Shrobe, Evolutionary Design of Complex Software (EDCS), Software Engineering Notes, Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 18–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [Schoen 1983]
    D.A. Schoen, The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  33. [Shaw 1989]
    M. Shaw, Maybe Your Next Programming Language Shouldn’t Be a Programming Language, in C. Science and T. Board (eds.), Scaling Up: A Research Agenda for Software Engineering, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 75–82.Google Scholar
  34. [Shipman 1993]
    F. Shipman, Supporting Knowledge-Base Evolution with Incremental Formalization, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado at Boulder.Google Scholar
  35. [Shipman, McCall 1994]
    F. Shipman and R. McCall, Supporting Knowledge-Base Evolution with Incremental Formalization, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, INTERCHI’94 Conference Proceedings, pp. 285–291.Google Scholar
  36. [Simon 1981]
    H.A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  37. [Sullivan 1994]
    J. Sullivan, A Proactive Computational Approach for Learning While Working, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  38. [Sumner 1995]
    T. Sumner, Designers and Their Tools: Computer Support for Domain Construction, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado at Boulder.Google Scholar
  39. [Terveen, Selfridge, Long 1993]
    L.G. Terveen, P.G. Selfridge and M.D. Long, From Folklore to Living Design Memory, in Human Factors in Computing Systems, INTERCHI’93 Conference Proceedings, pp. 15–22.Google Scholar
  40. [Winograd 1995]
    T. Winograd, From Programming Environments to Environments for Designing, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 38, No. 6, pp. 65–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [Winograd, Flores 1986]
    T. Winograd and F. Flores, Understanding Computers and Cognition: A New Foundation for Design, Ablex Publishing Corporation, Norwood, NJ.zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerhard Fischer
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for LifeLong Learning and Design (L3D) Department of Computer Science and Institute of Cognitive ScienceUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations