Advertisement

From ‘Steganographia’ to Subliminal Communication

  • Otto J. Horak
Chapter
Part of the IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology book series (IFIPAICT)

Abstract

After an introducing first section a review on the history and development of steganography concerning its name and its meaning is given in Section 2. Examples of different methods both for information hiding and a trial of an implicit steganographic signature illustrate this review. The last Section 3 is dedicated to steganography of today. This period starts with mass applications of digital computers in the early 1970s. Steganography now appears as covert channel in information processing, storage and communications. Subliminal channels as a special kind of covert channels, its detection and realization in digital signatures are shown as the most recent examples. Questions on future developments conclude the paper.

Keywords

Steganography null cipher semagram implicit signature covert channel subliminal communication 

References

  1. Buchmann, G. (1955) Geflügelte Worte und Zitatenschatz. Licence Edition for Bertelsmann-Lesering. Johannes Asmus Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  2. DoD-CSC (DoD-Computer Security Center, 1983) Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria. Document CSC-STD-001–83.Google Scholar
  3. Donelly, I. (1888) The great cryptogram: Francis Bacon’s cipher in the so-called Shakespeare plays. R.S. Peale & Co, Chicago.Google Scholar
  4. Figl, A. (1926) Systeme des Chiffrierens. Verlag Moser, Graz.Google Scholar
  5. Friedman, W.F. and Friedman E.W. (1957) The Shakespearean ciphers examined. An analysis of cryptographic systems used as evidence that some author other than William Shakespeare wrote the plays commonly attributed to him. University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  6. Galland, J.S. (1945) An historical and analytical bibliography of the literture of cryptology. Northwestern University, Evanstone.Google Scholar
  7. Gallup, E.W. (1899) The bi-literal cypher of Sir Francis Bacon discovered in his works and deciphered by Elizabeth Wells Gallup. Howard Publication Co., Detroit, Mich.; Gay & Bird, London.Google Scholar
  8. Halder, H.-R. and Heise W. (1977) Einführung in die Kombinatorik, 118–9. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Kahn, D. (1967) The Codebreakers — The story of secret writing. MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc, New York.Google Scholar
  10. Lampson, B.W. (1973) A note on the confinement problem. Communications of the ACM, 16, 613–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lipner, St.B. (1975) A comment on the confinement problem. ACM Operating Systems Review, 9, 192–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Meister, A. (1906) Die Geheimschrift im Dienste der Päpstlichen Kurie von ihren Anfängen bis zum Ende des XVI. Jahrhunderts. Quellen und Forschungen aus dem Gebiet der Geschichte, X I. Edited by Görres-Gesellschaft. F. Schöningh, Paderborn.Google Scholar
  13. NIST (US National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1994) Digital Signature Standard (DSS). Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) No. 186.Google Scholar
  14. Owen, O.W. (1893) Sir Francis bacon’s cipher story discovered and deciphered (5 Volumes, 1893–1895). Howard Publication Co., Detroit, Mich.Google Scholar
  15. Schott, G. (P. Gasparis Schotti, 1665) Schola steganographica, in classes octo distributa…. Nürnberg.Google Scholar
  16. Simmons, G.J. (1983) The prisoner’s problem and the subliminal channel, in Advances in cryptology (Ed. by D. Chaim., 1984). Proceedings of CRYPTO ‘83, 51–67. Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Simmons, G.J. (1994) Subliminal channels; past and present, in European Transactions on Telecommunications (ETT), 5, 45/459–59/473.Google Scholar
  18. Trithemius, I. (Johannes Tritheim, 1499) Steganographia: hoc est: Ars per ocvltam scriptvram animi svi volvntatem absentibus aperienda certa.Google Scholar
  19. According to Kahn (1967): Manuscript of a volume which he planned in 1499 and intended to comprise eight books and which he called ‘Steganographia’. Meister (1906) states that four books were planned and that Tritheim finished the first, March 27, 1500, the second, April 20 of the same year. According to Galland (1945) publication of “Stenographia” followed only long after the death of Tritheim (t 1512), whereby 1531 and 1551 as earliest dates are mentioned amongst many others. A last reprint appeared 1721.Google Scholar
  20. Ware, W.H. (1970) Security controls for computer systems: Report of Defense Science Board Task Force on Computer Security. Report R-609–1. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Cal. (Reissued October 1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Otto J. Horak
    • 1
  1. 1.Lecturer and consultant on cryptologyMatzendorf-HöllesAustria

Personalised recommendations