Control of Cerebral Blood Flow During Sleep and The Effects of Hypoxia
- 1.7k Downloads
During wakefulness, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is closely coupled to regional cerebral metabolism; however CBF is also strongly modulated by breathing, increasing in response to both hypercapnia and hypoxia. During stage III/IV non-rapid eye (NREM) sleep, cerebral metabolism and CBF decrease whilst the partial pressure of arterial CO2 increases due to a reduction in alveolar ventilation. The reduction in CBF during NREM sleep therefore occurs despite a relative state of hypercapnia. We have used transcranial Doppler ultrasound to determine middle cerebral artery velocity, as an index of CBF, and have determined that NREM sleep is associated with a reduction in the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia. This reduction in reactivity would, at least in part, allow the observed reductions in CBF in this state. Similarly, we have observed that the CBF response to hypoxia is absent during stage III/IV NREM sleep. Nocturnal hypoxia and hypercapnia are major pathogenic factor associated with cardio-respiratory diseases. These marked changes in cerebrovascular control that occur during sleep suggest that the cerebral circulation may be particularly vulnerable to cardio-respiratory insults during this period.
KeyWordstranscranial Doppler ultrasound middle cerebral artery velocity cerebral perfusion hypoxia hypercapnia
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 32.Rechtschaffen A and Kales A. A manual of standardised terminology, techniques, and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Bethesda: National Institute of health, 1968, p. publication 204.Google Scholar
- 35.Shankar V and Armstead WM. Opioids contribute to hypoxia-induced pial artery dilation through activation of ATP-sensitive K+ channels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 269: H997–1002, 1995.Google Scholar
- 38.Sokoloff L. Local cerebral energy metabolism: its relationships to local functional activity and blood flow. Ciba Found Symp: 171–197, 1978.Google Scholar
- 39.Sremin OU, Rubstein EH, and Sonnenschein RR. Cholinergic modulation of the cerebrovascular response to CO 2 in the rabbit. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977.Google Scholar