Advertisement

Reconstructing Hominin Interactions with Mammalian Carnivores (6.0–1.8 Ma)

  • Adrian Treves
  • Paul Palmqvist
Chapter
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)

Abstract

Several hominin genera evolved to use savanna and woodland habitats across Pliocene Africa. This radiation into novel niches for apes occurred despite a daunting array of carnivores (Mammalia, Carnivora) between 6.0 and 1.8 Ma (Figure 17.1). Many of these carnivores would have preyed on hominins if given the opportunity. In this paper we ask what the behavioral adaptations were that permitted hominins to survive and spread, despite this potentially higher risk of predation in ancient Africa.

Keywords

Modern Human Large Carnivore Wild Chimpanzee Party Size Mammalian Carnivore 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anyonge, W. (1993). Body mass in large extant and extinct carnivores. Jour. of Zool. Lond., 231: 339–350.Google Scholar
  2. Anyonge, W. (1996). Locomotor behaviour in Plio-Pleistocene sabre-tooth cats: A biomechanical analysis. Jour. of Zool. Lond., 238: 395–413.Google Scholar
  3. Arribas, A., and Palmqvist, P. (1998). Taphonomy and palaeoecology of an assemblage of large mammals: hyaenid activity in the lower Pleistocene site at Venta Micena (Orce, Guadix-Baza Basin, Granada, Spain). Geobios, 31(suppl.): 3–47.Google Scholar
  4. Arribas, A., and Palmqvist, P. (1999). On the ecological connection between sabre-tooths and hominids: Faunal dispersal events in the lower Pleistocene and a review of the evidence for the first hominin arrival in Europe. Jour. of Arch. Sci., 26: 571–585.Google Scholar
  5. Baeninger, R., Estes, R., and Baldwin, S. (1977). Anti-predator behaviour of baboons and impalas toward a cheetah. East African Wildlife Journal, 15: 327–329.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, T.N. (1993). The African leopard: Ecology and behavior of a solitary felid. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  7. Barry, J.C. (1987). Large carnivores (Canidae, Hyaenidae, Felidae) from Laetoli. In M.D. Leakey and J.M. Harris (Eds.), Laetoli: A Pliocene site in Tanzania (pp. 235–258). London: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bednekoff, P.A., and Lima, S.L. (1998a). Randomness, chaos and confusion in the study of anti-predator vigilance. Tree, 13: 284–287.Google Scholar
  9. Bednekoff, P.A., and Lima, S.L. (1998b). Re-examining safety in numbers: Interactions between risk dilution and collective detection depend upon predator targeting behaviour. Proc. of the Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 265: 2021–2026.Google Scholar
  10. Bellomo, R.V. (1994). Methods of determining early hominin behavioral activities associated with the controlled use of fire at FxJj 20 Main, Koobi Fora Kenya. Jour. of Human Evol., 27: 173–195.Google Scholar
  11. Berger, L.R., and Tobias, P.V. (1994). New discoveries at the early hominid site of Gladysvale, South Africa. South African Jour. of Sci., 90: 223–226.Google Scholar
  12. Berta, A. (1981). The Plio-Pleistocene hyaena Chasmaporthetes ossifragus from Florida. Jour. of Vertebr. Paleontol., 1: 341–356.Google Scholar
  13. Blumenschine, R.J. (1995). Percussion marks, tooth marks, and experimental determinations of the timing of hominin and carnivore access to long bones at FLK Zinjanthropus, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Jour. of Human Evol., 29: 21–51.Google Scholar
  14. Boaz, N.T., Gaziry, A.W., and El-Aurnati, A. (1979). New fossil finds from the Libyan Upper Neogene site of Sahabi. Nature, 280: 137–140.Google Scholar
  15. Bocherens, H., Emslie, S., Billiou, D., and Mariotti, A. (1995). Stable isotopes (13C, 15N) and paleodiet of the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus). Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences, Paris, t. 320 (série II a): 779–784.Google Scholar
  16. Boesch, C. (1991). The effects of leopard predation on grouping patterns in forest chimpanzees. Behaviour, 117: 220–242.Google Scholar
  17. Boesch, C., and Boesch, H. (1981). Sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees: A preliminary report. Jour. of Human Evol., 10: 585–593.Google Scholar
  18. Boggess, J. (1980). Intermale relations and troop membership changes in langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Nepal. Inter. Jour. of Primatol., 1: 233–263.Google Scholar
  19. Boinski, S., Treves, A., and Chapman, C.A. (2000). A critical evaluation of the influence of predators on primates: Effects on group movement. In S. Boinski and P.A. Garber (Eds.), On the move: How and why animals travel in groups (pp. 43–72). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Borries, C. (1993). Ecology of female social relationships: Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) and the van Schaik model. Folia Primatol., 61: 21–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Borries, C. (2000). Male dispersal and mating season influxes in Hanuman langurs living in multi-male groups. In P.M. Kappeler (Ed.), Primate males. (pp. 146–158). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  22. Borries, C, Sommer, V., and Srivastava, A. (1994). Weaving a tight social net: Allogrooming in free-ranging female langurs (Presbytis entellus). Inter. Jour. of Primatol., 15: 421–444.Google Scholar
  23. Brain, C.K. (1981). The hunters or the hunted? An introduction to African cave taphonomy. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  24. Brain, C.K. (1994). The Swartkrans palaeontological research project in perspective: Results and conclusions. South African Jour. of Sci., 91: 220–223.Google Scholar
  25. Brantingham, P.J. (1998). Hominid-carnivore coevolution and invasion of the predatory guild. Jour. of Anthropol. Arch., 17: 327–353.Google Scholar
  26. Brunet, M., Beauvilain, A., Geraads, D., Guy, F., Kasser, M., Mackaye, H.T., Maclatchy, L.M., Mouchelin, G., Sudre, J., and Vignaud, P. (1997). Chad: A new Pliocene hominid site. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Serie II-A: Sciences de la Terre et des Planetes, 324: 341–345.Google Scholar
  27. Bunn, H.T., and Ezzo, J.A. (1993). Hunting and scavenging by Plio-Pleistocene hominids: Nutritional constraints, archaeological patterns, and behavioural implications. Jour. of Arch. Sci., 20: 365–398.Google Scholar
  28. Busse, C. (1980). Leopard and lion predation upon chacma baboons living in the Moremi Wildlife Reserve. Botswana Notes & Records,12: 15–20.Google Scholar
  29. Byers, J.A. (1997). American pronghorn: Social adaptations and the ghosts of predators past. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  30. Capaldo, S.D. (1997). Experimental determinations of carcass processing by Plio-Pleistocene hominins and carnivores at FLK 22 (Zinjanthropus), Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Jour. of Human Evol., 33: 555–597.Google Scholar
  31. Caro, T.M. (1987). Cheetah mothers’ vigilance: Looking out for prey or for predators? Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol., 20: 351–361.Google Scholar
  32. Caro, T.M. (1989a). The brotherhood of cheetahs. Natural History, 6: 50–56.Google Scholar
  33. Caro, T.M. (1989b). Determinants of asociality in felids. In V. Standen and R.A. Foley (Eds.), Comparative socioecology: The behavioural ecology of humans and other mammals (pp. 41–74). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.Google Scholar
  34. Chapman, C.A. (1986). Boa constrictor predation and group response in white-faced Cebus monkeys. Biotropica, 18: 171–172.Google Scholar
  35. Chapman, C.A, Wrangham, R.W., and Chapman, L.J. (1995). Ecological constraints on group size: An analysis of spider monkey and chimpanzee subgroups. Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol., 36: 59–70.Google Scholar
  36. Chapman, C.A, White, F.J., and Wrangham, R.W. (1994). Party size in chimpanzees and bonobos. In R.W. Wrangham, W.C. McGrew, F.B.M. de Waal, and P. Heltne (Eds.), Chimpanzee cultures (pp. 41–58). Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  37. Chellam, R., and Johnsingh, A.J.T. (1993). Management of Asiatic lions in the Gir Forest, India. Symp. of the Zool. Soc. of Lond., 65: 409–424.Google Scholar
  38. Cheney, D.L., and Seyfarth, R.M. (1990). How monkeys see the world. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  39. Cooke, H.B.S. (1991). Dinofelis barlowi (Mammalia, Carnivore, Felidae) cranial material from Bolt’s Farm collected by the University of California African expedition. Paleontologia Africana, 28: 9–22.Google Scholar
  40. Corbett, J. (1954). The man-eating leopard of Rudrapayang. London: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  41. Cowlishaw, G. (1994). Vulnerability to predation in baboon populations. Behaviour, 131: 293–304.Google Scholar
  42. Cowlishaw, G., Lawes, M.J., Lightbody, M., Martin, A., Pettifor, R., and Rowcliffe, J.M. (2004). A simple rule for the costs of vigilance: Empirical evidence from a social forager. Proc. of Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 271: 27–33.Google Scholar
  43. Creel, S.R., and Creel, N.M. (1995). Communal hunting and pack size in African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus. Animal Behaviour, 50: 1325–1339.Google Scholar
  44. de Ruiter, D.J., and Berger, L.R. (2000). Leopards as taphonomic agents in dolomitic caves: Implications for bone accumulations in the hominid-bearing deposits of South Africa. Jour. of Arch. Sci., 27: 665–684.Google Scholar
  45. Delson, E, Terranova, C.J, Jungers, W.L, Sargis, E.J, Jablonski, N.G., and Dechow, P.C. (2000). Body mass in Cercopithecidae (Primates, Mammalia): Estimation and scaling in extinct and extant taxa. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 83: 1–159.Google Scholar
  46. Dominguez-Rodrigo, M., and Pickering, T.R. (2003). Early hominid hunting and scavenging: A zooarcheological review. Evol. Anthropol., 12: 275–282.Google Scholar
  47. Doran, D. (1997). Influence of seasonality on activity patterns, feeding behavior, ranging and grouping patterns in Tao chimpanzees. Inter. Jour. of Primatol., 18: 183–206.Google Scholar
  48. Doran, D., and McNeilage, A. (1998). Gorilla ecology and behavior. Evol. Anthropol., 6: 120–131.Google Scholar
  49. Edmunds, M. (1974). Defence in Animals: A Survey of Anti-Predator Defences. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  50. Elgar, M.A. (1989). Predator vigilance and group size in mammals and birds: A critical review of the empirical evidence. Biol. Review, 64: 13–33.Google Scholar
  51. Fanshawe, J.H., and Fitzgibbon, C.D. (1993). Factors influencing the hunting success of an African wild dog pack. Animal Behaviour, 45: 479–490.Google Scholar
  52. Fay, J.M., Carroll, R., Peterhans, J.C.K., and Harris, D. (1995). Leopard attack on and consumption of gorillas in the Central African Republic. Jour. of Human Evol., 29: 93–99.Google Scholar
  53. Ferretti, M.P. (1999). Tooth enamel structure in the hyaenid Chasmaporthetes lunensis lunensis from the Late Pliocene of Italy, with implications for feeding behavior. Jour. of Vert. Paleontol., 19: 767–770.Google Scholar
  54. FitzGibbon, C.D. (1989). A cost to individuals with reduced vigilance in groups of Thomson’s gazelles hunted by cheetahs. Animal Behaviour, 37: 508–510.Google Scholar
  55. FitzGibbon, C.D. (1990a). Mixed-species grouping in Thomson’s gazelles: The antipredator benefits. Animal Behaviour, 39: 1116–1126.Google Scholar
  56. FitzGibbon, C.D. (1990b). Why do hunting cheetahs prefer male gazelles? Animal Behaviour, 40: 837–845.Google Scholar
  57. Fitzgibbon, C.D., and Lazarus, J. (1995). Anti-predator behavior of Serengeti ungulates: Individual differences and population consequences. In A.R.E. Sinclair, P. Arcese (Eds.), Serengeti II: Dynamics, management and conservation of an ecosystem (pp. 274–296). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  58. Foley, R. (1987). Another unique species. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  59. Foster, W.A., and Treherne, J.E. (1981). Evidence for the dilution effect in the selfish herd from fish predation on a marine insect. Nature, 293: 466–467.Google Scholar
  60. Fuller, T.K., and Kat, P.W. (1993). Hunting success of African wild dogs in southwestern Kenya. Jour. of Mammalogy, 74: 464–467.Google Scholar
  61. Galton, F. (1871). Gregariousness in cattle and men. MacMillan’s Magazine, 23: 353–357.Google Scholar
  62. Gautier-Hion, A., and Tutin, C.E.G. (1988). Simultaneous attack by adult males of a polyspecific troop of monkeys against a crowned hawk eagle. Folia Primatol., 51: 149–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Geraads, D. (1997). Pliocene Carnivora from Ahl al Oughlam (Casablanca). Geobios, 30: 127–164.Google Scholar
  64. Ghiglieri, M.P. (1989). Hominoid sociobiology and hominin social evolution. In P. Heltne and L. Marquardt (Eds.), Understanding chimpanzees (pp. 370–379). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  65. Goodall, J. (1986). The chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of behaviour. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  66. Goodman, S.M., O’Connor, S., and Langrand, O. (1993). A review of predation on lemurs: Implications for the evolution of social behavior in small, nocturnal primates. In P.M. Kappeler and J.U. Ganzhorn (Eds.), Lemur social systems and their ecological basis (pp. 51–66). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  67. Gould, L., Fedigan, L.M., and Rose, L.M. (1997). Why be vigilant? The case of the alpha animal. Inter. Jour. of Primatol., 18: 401–414.Google Scholar
  68. Haile-Selassie, Y. (2001). Late Miocene hominins from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 412: 178–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hendey, Q.B. (1974). The late Cenozoic Carnivora of the south-western Cape Province. Annals of the South African Museum, 63: 1–363.Google Scholar
  70. Hendey, Q.B. (1980). Agriotherium (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae) from LangeBannweg, South Africa, and relationships of the genus. Annals of the South African Museum, 81: 1–109.Google Scholar
  71. Hens, S.M., Konigsberg, L.W., and Jungers, W.L. (2000). Estimating stature in fossil hominins: Which regression model and reference sample to use? Journal of Human Evolution, 38: 767–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hill, K.R., and Hurtado, A.M. (1995). Aché life history: The ecology and demography of a foraging people. New York: Aldine-DeGruyter.Google Scholar
  73. Hill, R.A., and Cowlishaw, G. (2002). Foraging female baboons exhibit similar patterns of anti-predator vigilance across two populations. In L. Miller (Ed.), Eat or be eaten: Predator sensitive foraging in nonhuman primates (pp. 187–204). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  74. Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., Byrne, R.W., Takasake, H., and Byrne, J.M.E. (1986). Aggression toward large carnivores by wild chimpanzees of Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. Folia Primatol., 47: 8–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Holekamp, K.E., Smale, L., Berg, R., and Cooper, S.M. (1997). Hunting rates and hunting success in the spotted hyena (Crocuat crocuta). Jour. of Zool. Lond., 242: 1–15.Google Scholar
  76. Hoppe-Dominik, B. (1984). Etude du spectre des proies de la panther Panthera pardus, dans le Parc National de Tao en Cote d’Ivoire. Mammalia, 48: 477–490.Google Scholar
  77. Horrocks, J.A., and Hunte, W. (1986). Sentinel behaviour in vervet monkeys: Who sees whom first? Animal Behaviour, 34: 1566–1567.Google Scholar
  78. Hunt, R.M. (1996). Biogeography of the Order Carnivora. In J.L. Gittleman (Ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution, Vol. 2. (pp. 485–541). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  79. Jones, M. (1998). The function of vigilance in sympatric marsupial carnivores: The eastern quoll and the Tasmanian devil. Animal Behaviour, 56: 1279–1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Keyser, A.W. (1991). The palaeontology of Haasgat: A preliminary account. Palaeontologia Africana, 28: 29–33.Google Scholar
  81. Klump, G.M., and Shalter, M.D. (1984). Acoustic behavior of birds and mammals in the predator context. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 66: 189–226.Google Scholar
  82. Knight, S.K., and Knight, R.L. (1986). Vigilance patterns of bald eagles feeding in groups. The Auk, 103: 263–272.Google Scholar
  83. Koenig, A. (1994). Random scan, sentinels or sentinel system? A study in captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). In J.J. Roeder, J.R. Anderson, N. Herrenschmidt (Eds.), Current primatology, Vol. 11 Social development, learning and behaviour (pp. 69–76). Strasbourg: University Louis Pasteur.Google Scholar
  84. Koenig, A., Beise, J., Chalise, M.K., and Ganzhorn, J.U. (1998). When females should contest for food-testing hypotheses about resource density, distribution, size, and quality with Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus). Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol., 42: 225–237.Google Scholar
  85. Kortlandt, A. (1980). How might early hominins have defended themselves against large predators and food competitors? Jour. of Human Evol., 9: 79–112.Google Scholar
  86. Kortlandt, A. (1989). The use of stone tools by wild-living chimpanzees. In P. Heltne and L. Marquardt (Eds.), Understanding chimpanzees (pp. 146–147). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  87. Kruuk, H. (1972). The spotted hyena. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  88. Leakey, L.N., Milledge, S.A.H., Leakey, S.M., Edung, J., Haynes, P., Kiptoo, D.K., and McGeorge, A. (1999). Diet of striped hyaena in northern Kenya. African Journal of Ecology, 37: 314–326.Google Scholar
  89. Leakey, M.G., Feibel, C.S., McDougall, I., Ward, C., and Walker, A. (1998). New specimens and confirmation of an early age for Australopithecus anamensis. Nature, 393: 62–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lee-Thorp, J.A., Thackeray, J.F., and van der Merwe, N. (2000). The hunters and the hunted revisited. Jour. of Human Evol., 39: 565–576.Google Scholar
  91. Lee-Thorp, J.A., van der Merwe, N.J., and Brain, C.K. (1994). Diet of Australopithecus robustus at Swartkrans from stable carbon isotopic analysis. Jour. of Human Evol., 27: 361–372.Google Scholar
  92. Lewis, M.E. (1997). Carnivoran paleoguilds of Africa: Implications for hominin food procurement strategies. Jour. of Human Evol., 32: 257–288.Google Scholar
  93. Lima, S.L. (1990). The influence of models on the interpretation of vigilance. In M. Bekoff and D. Jamieson (Eds.) Interpretation and explanation in the study of animal behavior (pp. 246–267). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  94. Lima, S.L. (1993). Ecological and evolutionary perspectives on escape from predatory attack: A survey of North American birds. The Wilson Bulletin, 105: 1–47.Google Scholar
  95. Lima, S.L. (1995). Back to the basics of anti-predatory vigilance: The group-size effect. Animal Behaviour, 49: 11–20.Google Scholar
  96. Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, J., Smith, M.E., Aanes, R., and Swenson, J.E. (1999). Large carnivores that kill livestock: Do problem individuals really exist? Wildlife Society Bulletin, 27: 698–705.Google Scholar
  97. Linnell, J.D.C., Solberg, E.J., Brainerd, S., Liberg, O., Sand, H., Wabakken, P., and Kojola, I. (2003). Is the fear of wolves justified? A Fenniscandian perspective. Acta Zoologica Lituanica, 13: 1–160.Google Scholar
  98. Lupo, K.D. (1998). Experimentally derived extraction rates for marrow: Implications for body part exploitation strategies of Plio-Pleistocene hominin scavengers. Jour. of Arch. Sci., 25: 657–675.Google Scholar
  99. Marean, C.W. (1989). Sabertooth cats and their relevance to early hominin diet and evolution. Jour. of Human Evol., 18: 559–582.Google Scholar
  100. Marean, C.W., and Ehrhardt, C.L. (1995). Paleoanthropological and paleoecological implications of the taphonomy of a sabertooth den. Jour. of Human Evol., 29: 515–547.Google Scholar
  101. Martin, L.D. (1989). Fossil history of the terrestrial Carnivora. In J.L. Gittleman (Ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution (pp. 536–568). Ithaca: Comstock.Google Scholar
  102. Martinez-Navarro, B., and Palmqvist, P. (1995). Presence of the African machairodont Megantereon whitei (Broom, 1937) (Felida, Carnivora, Mammalia) in the Lower Pleistocene site of Venta Micena (Orce, Granada, Spain), with some considerations of the origin, evolution and dispersal if the genus. Jour. of Arch. Sci., 22: 569–582.Google Scholar
  103. Martinez-Navarro, B., and Palmqvist, P. (1996). Presence of the African saber-toothed felid Megantereon whitei (Broom, 1937) (Mammalia, Carnivora, Machairodontinae) in Apollonia-1 (Mygdonia Basin, Macedonia, Greece). Jour. of Arch. Sci., 23: 869–872.Google Scholar
  104. Martínez-Navarro, B., and Rook, L. (2003). Gradual evolution in the African hunting dog lineage. Systematic implications. Comptes Rendus Académie des Sciences Palevol., 2: 695–702.Google Scholar
  105. Mathers, K., and Henneberg, M. (1996). Were we ever that big? Gradual increase in hominin body size over time. Homo, 46: 141–173.Google Scholar
  106. Matheus, P.E. (1995). Diet and co-ecology of Pleistocene short-faced bears and brown bears in eastern Beringia. Quaternary Research, 44: 447–453.Google Scholar
  107. McDougal, C. (1987). The man-eating tiger in geographical and historical perspective. In R.L. Tilson and U.S. Seal (Eds.), Tigers of the world (pp. 435–448). Park City, NJ: Noyes.Google Scholar
  108. McHenry, H.M. (1992). Body size and proportions in early hominins. Amer. Jour. of Phys. Anthropol., 87: 407–431.Google Scholar
  109. McHenry, H.M. (1994). Behavioral ecological implications of early hominin body size. Jour. of Human Evol., 27: 77–87.Google Scholar
  110. Miller, W.E., and Carranza, O.C. (1996). Agriotherium schneideri from the hemphillian of Central Mexico. Jour. of Mammalogy, 77: 568–577.Google Scholar
  111. Mills, M.G.L. (1989). The comparative behavioral ecology of hyenas: The importance of diet and food dispersion. In J.L. Gittleman (Ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution (pp. 125–142). Ithaca: Comstock Assocs.Google Scholar
  112. Monahan, C.M. (1998). The Hadza carcass transport debate revisited and its archaeological implications. Jour. of Arch. Sci., 25: 405–424.Google Scholar
  113. Packer, C., Scheel, D., and Pusey, A.E. (1990). Why lions form groups: Food is not enough. The American Naturalist, 136: 1–19.Google Scholar
  114. Palmqvist, P. (2002). On the presence of Megantereon whitei at the south Turkwel hominin site, northern Kenya. Jour. of Paleontol., 76: 923–930.Google Scholar
  115. Palmqvist, P., and Arribas, A. (2001). Taphonomic decoding of the paleobiological information locked in a lower Pleistocene assemblage of large mammals. Paleobiology, 27: 512–530.Google Scholar
  116. Palmqvist, P, Martinez-Navarro, B., and Arribas, A. (1996). Prey selection by terrestrial carnivores in a lower Pleistocene paleocommunity. Paleobiology, 22: 514–534.Google Scholar
  117. Palmqvist, P., Arribas, A., and Martínez-Navarro, B. (1999). Ecomorphological study of large canids from the lower Pleistocene of southeastern Spain. Lethaia, 32: 75–88.Google Scholar
  118. Palmqvist, P., Martínez-Navarro, B., Toro, I., Espigares, M.P., Ros-Montoya, S., Torregrosa V., and Pérez-Claros, J.A. (2005). A re-evaluation of the evidence of human presence during Early Pleistocene times in southeastern Spain. L’Anthropologie, 109:411–450.Google Scholar
  119. Palmqvist, P., Grocke, D.R., Arribas, A., and Farina, R.A. (2003). Paleoecological reconstruction of a lower Pleistocene large mammal community using biogeochemical (δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, Sr: Zn) and ecomorphological approaches. Paleobiology, 29: 205–22Google Scholar
  120. Peetz, A.A., Norconk, M.A., and Kinzey, W.G. (1992). Predation by jaguar on howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) in Venezuela. Amer. Jour. of Primatol., 28: 223–228.Google Scholar
  121. Peres, A. (1990). A harpy eagle successfully captures an adult male red howler monkey. The Wilson Bulletin, 102: 560–561.Google Scholar
  122. Peterhans, J.C.K., and Gnoske, T.P. (2001). The science of ‘man-eating’ among lions Panthera leo with a reconstruction of the natural history of the ‘Maneaters of Tsavo’. Jour. of East African Natural History 90: 1–40Google Scholar
  123. Petter, G., Pickford, M., and Senut, B. (1994). Presence of the genus Agriotherium (Mammalia, Carnivora, Ursidae) in the late Miocene of the Nkondo Formation (Uganda, East Africa). Paleontology, 319: 713–717.Google Scholar
  124. Rajpurohit, K.S. (1998). Child lifting wolves in Hazaribagh, India. Ambio, 28: 163–166.Google Scholar
  125. Rajpurohit, R.S., and Krausman, P.R. (2000). Human-sloth-bear conflicts in Madhya Pradesh, India. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 28: 393–399.Google Scholar
  126. Rasa, O.A.E. (1986). Coordinated vigilance in dwarf mongoose family groups: ‘The watchman’s song’ hypothesis and the costs of guarding. Ethology, 71: 340–344.Google Scholar
  127. Rasa, O.A.E. (1989). The cost and effectiveness of vigilance behaviour in the dwarf mongoose: Implications for fitness and optimal group size. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, 1: 265–282.Google Scholar
  128. Rodman, P.S., and Mitani, J.C. (1987). Orangutans: Sexual dimorphism in a solitary species. In B.B. Smuts, D.L. Cheney, R.M. Seyfarth, R.W. Wrangham, and T.T. Struhsaker (Eds.), Primate societies (pp. 146–154). Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  129. Rook, L. (1994). The Plio-Pleistocene Old World canis (Xenocyon) ex gr falconeri. Bollettino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana, 33: 71–82.Google Scholar
  130. Sanyal, P. (1987). Managing the man-eaters in the Sundarbans Tiger Reserve of India-A case study. In R.L. Tilson and U.S. Seal (Eds.), Tigers of the world (pp. 427–434). Park City, NJ: Noyes.Google Scholar
  131. Savage, A., Snowdon, C.T., Giraldo, L.H., and Soto, L.H. (1996). Parental care patterns and vigilance in wild cotton-top tamarins (Sanguinas oedipus). In M. Norconk, A. Rosenberger, P. Garber (Eds.), Adaptive radiation of Neotropical primates (pp. 187–199) New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  132. Schaller, G.B. (1972). The Serengeti Lion: A study of predator-prey relations. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  133. Seidensticker, J. (1983). Predation by Panthera cats and measures of human influence in habitats of South Asian monkeys. Inter. Jour. of Primatol., 4: 323–326.Google Scholar
  134. Selvaggio, M.M. (1998). Evidence for a three-stage sequence of hominin and carnivore involvement with long bones at FLK Zinjanthropus, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Jour. of Arch. Sci., 25: 191–202.Google Scholar
  135. Setiawan, E., Knott, C.D., and Budhi, S. (1996). Preliminary assessment of vigilance and predator avoidance behavior of orangutans in Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropical Biodiversity, 3: 269–279.Google Scholar
  136. Sillen, A., and Lee-Thorp, J.A. (1994). Trace element and isotopic aspects of predator-prey relationships in terrestrial foodwebs. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 107: 243–255.Google Scholar
  137. Simons, J.W. (1966). The presence of leopard and a study of the food debris in the leopard lairs of the Mount Suswa Caves, Kenya. Bulletin of the Cave Exploration Group of East Africa, 1: 51–61.Google Scholar
  138. Smith, D.W., Peterson, R.O., and Houston, D.B. (2003). Yellowstone after wolves. Bioscience, 53: 330–340.Google Scholar
  139. Smuts, B.B. (1985). Sex and friendship in baboons. Hawthorne, Aldine.Google Scholar
  140. Spoonheimer, M., and Lee-Thorp, J.A. (1999). Isotopic evidence for the diet of an early hominin, Australopithecus africanus. Science, 283: 368–370.Google Scholar
  141. Sugardjito, J., te Boekhorst, I.J.A., and van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. (1987). Ecological constraints on the grouping of wild orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Inter. Jour. of Primatol., 8: 17–41.Google Scholar
  142. Sunquist, M.E., and Sunquist, F.C. (1989). Ecological constraints on predation by large felids. In J.L. Gittleman (Ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution (pp. 283–301). Ithaca: Comstock Assocs.Google Scholar
  143. Taylor, M.E. (1989). Locomotor adaptations of carnivores. In J.L. Gittleman (Ed.), Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution (pp. 382–409). Ithaca: Comstock Assocs.Google Scholar
  144. Treves, A. (1997). Vigilance and use of micro-habitat in solitary rainforest mammals. Mammalia, 61: 511–525.Google Scholar
  145. Treves, A. (1999a). Has predation shaped the social systems of arboreal primates? Inter. Jour. of Primatol., 20: 35–53.Google Scholar
  146. Treves, A. (2000). Theory and method in studies of vigilance and aggregation. Animal Behaviour, 60: 711–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Treves, A. (2002). Predicting predation risk for foraging, arboreal monkeys. In L. Miller (Ed.), Eat or be eaten: Predator sensitive foraging in nonhuman primates (pp. 222–241). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  148. Treves, A., and Chapman, C.A. (1996). Conspecific threat, predation avoidance and resource defense: Implications for grouping in langurs. Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol., 39: 43–53.Google Scholar
  149. Treves, A., Drescher, A., and Ingrisano, N. (2001). Vigilance and aggregation in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol., 50: 90–95.Google Scholar
  150. Treves, A., Drescher, A., and Snowdon, C.T. (2003). Maternal watchfulness in black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Ethology, 109: 135–146.Google Scholar
  151. Treves, A., and Naughton-Treves, L. (1999). Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores. Jour. of Human Evol., 36: 275–282.Google Scholar
  152. Treves, A., and Pizzagalli, D. (2002). Vigilance and perception of social stimuli: Views from ethology, and social neuroscience. In M. Bekoff, C. Allen, G. Burghardt (Eds.), The cognitive animal: Empirical and theoretical perspectives on animal cognition (pp. 463–469). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  153. Tsukahara, T. (1993). Lions eat chimpanzees: The first evidence of predation by lions on wild chimpanzees. Amer. Jour. of Primatol. 29: 1–11.Google Scholar
  154. Turnbull-Kemp, P. (1967). The leopard. Cape Town: Howard Timmins.Google Scholar
  155. Turner, A. (1990). The evolution of the guild of larger terrestrial carnivores during the Plio-Pleistocene in Africa. Geobios, 23: 349–368.Google Scholar
  156. Turner, A. (1997). Further remains of Carnivora (Mammalia) from the Sterkfontein hominin site. Palaeontologica Africana, 34: 115–126.Google Scholar
  157. Turner, A., and Anton, M. (1996). The giant hyaena, Pachycrocuta brevirostris (Mammalia, Carnivora, Hyaenidae). Geobios, 29: 455–468.Google Scholar
  158. Turner, A., and Anton, M. (1997). The big cats and their fossil relatives. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  159. Turner, A., and Anton, M. (1998). Climate and evolution: Implications of some extinction patterns in African and European machairodontine cats of the Plio-Pleistocene. Estudios Geologicos (Madrid), 54: 209–230.Google Scholar
  160. Tutin, C.E.G., McGrew, W.C., and Baldwin, P.J. (1981). Responses of wild chimpanzees to potential predators. In A.B. Chiarelli and R.S. Corruccini (Eds.), Primate behavior and sociobiology (pp. 136–141). New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  161. van Schaik, C.P., and Griffiths, M. (1996). Activity patterns of Indonesian rain forest mammals. Biotropica, 28: 105–112.Google Scholar
  162. Watts, D.P. (1998). A preliminary study of selective visual attention in female mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei). Primates, 39: 71–78.Google Scholar
  163. Werdelin, L., Turner, A., Solounias, N. (1994). Studies of fossil hyaenids: The genera Hyaenictis Gaudry and Chasmaporthetes Hay, with a reconsideration of the Hyaenidae of Langebaanwegm South Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 11: 197–217.Google Scholar
  164. Werdelin, L., and Turner, A. (1996). Turnover in the guild of larger carnivores in Eurasia across the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Acta Zoologica Cracovensia 39: 585–592.Google Scholar
  165. Wickler, W. (1985). Coordination of vigilance in bird groups. The ‘watchman’s song’ hypothesis. Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 69: 250–253.Google Scholar
  166. Wirtz, P., and Wawra, M. (1986). Vigilance and group size in Homo sapiens. Ethology, 71: 283–286.Google Scholar
  167. WoldeGabriel, G., White, T.D., Suwa, G., Renne, P., de Heinzelin, J., Hart, W.K., and Helken, G. (1994). Ecological and temporal placement of early Pliocene hominins at Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature, 371: 330–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Wright, P.C. (1998). Impact of predation risk on the behaviour of Propithecus diadema edwardsi in the rain forest of Madagascar. Behaviour, 135: 483–512.Google Scholar
  169. Ydenberg, R.C., and Dill, L.M. (1986). The economics of fleeing from predators. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 16: 229–251.Google Scholar
  170. Zuberbühler, K. ((2000). Interspecies semantic communication in two forest primates. Proc. of Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 267: 713–718.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian Treves
    • 1
  • Paul Palmqvist
    • 2
  1. 1.Conservation International Center for Applied Biodiversity ScienceMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Departamento de Geología y Ecología (Área de Paleontología)Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de MálagaMálagaSpain

Personalised recommendations