The Response of Spectral Tarsiers Toward Avian and Terrestrial Predators

  • Sharon L. Gursky
Part of the Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects book series (DIPR)


Predation pressure has an overwhelming influence on the behavior of nonhuman primates (Cheney & Wrangham, 1986; Isbell, 1994; Hill & Dunbar, 1998; Janson, 1998; Stanford, 1998; Treves, 1998; Wright, 1998; Bearder et al., 2002). In response to this powerful selective pressure, primates have evolved a variety of adaptations to thwart predators including concealment, vigilance, flight, alarm calls, group living, and polyspecific associations (Caine, 1984; Cheney & Wrangham, 1986; Cords, 1990; Ferrari & Ferrari, 1990; Baldellou & Henzi, 1992; Cowlishaw, 1994; Lima, 1995; Gould, 1996; Iwamoto et al., 1996; Bshary & Noë, 1997; Treves, 1998; Bearder et al., 2002). The anti-predator strategy used by a prey often depends on the particular circumstances of a threatening situation (Ydenberg 1986; Welton et al., 2003). In other words, to avoid unnecessary and costly responses, prey animals assess the degree of risk and tailor their responses accordingly (Lima & Dill, 1990; Janson, 1998; Wright, 1999; Henni, 2005). In particular, predators or situations that are unlikely to be successful in their attack can be responded to differently than can predators or situations that are likely to be successful (Welton et al., 2003).


Ground Squirrel Alarm Call Focal Animal Vervet Monkey Predator Model 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon L. Gursky
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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