Modelling Setup Times in Project Scheduling

  • Marek Mika
  • Grzegorz Waligóra
  • Jan Weglarz
Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR, volume 92)


In this chapter project scheduling problems with setup times are considered. Some practical applications justifying considering setups separately from activities are described. An extensive classification of setup times adapted from machine scheduling is proposed, including activity vs. class setup, separable vs. inseparable setup, as well as sequence-independent and sequence-dependent setup times. A new category of setup times - schedule-dependent ones - is discussed. The main part of the paper shows how to model setup times in the presence of particular project components, such as: precedence constraints, resource availability constraints, multiple resource units requests, multiple resources, etc. Some possible extensions of the presented models are given.


project scheduling setup setup time setup cost 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allahverdi, A., Gupta, J. N. D., and Aldowiasan, T. (1999). A review of scheduling research involving setup considerations, Omega, International Journal of Management Science 27:219–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, K. R. (1974). Introduction to Sequencing and Scheduling, John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Blazewicz, J., Lenstra, J.K., and Rinnooy Kan, A.H.G. (1983). Scheduling subject to resource constraints, Discrete Appl. Math. 5:11–24.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. Brucker, P., Drexl, A., Möhring, R., Neumann, K., and Pesch, E. (1999). Resource-constrained project scheduling: Notation, classification, models, and methods, European Journal of Operational Research 112:3–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bruno, J., and Downey, P. (1978). Complexity of task sequencing with deadlines, set-up times and changeover costs, SIAM Journal on Computing 7:393–404.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, B. (1993). A better heuristic for preemptive parallel machine scheduling with batch setup times, SIAM Journal on Computing 22:1303–1318.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  7. Chrétienne, P., and Picouleau C. (1995). Scheduling with communication delays: A survey, in: Scheduling Theory and its Applications, P. Chrétienne, E.G. Coffman, Jr., J.K. Lenstra, and Z. Liu, eds., John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 65–90.Google Scholar
  8. Conway, R.W., Maxwell, W.L., and Miller, L.W. (1967). Theory of Scheduling, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Demeulemeester, E. (1992). Optimal Algorithms for Various Classes of Multiple Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problems, Dissertation, Katholiet Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, (unpublished).Google Scholar
  10. Demeulemeester, E.L., and Herroelen, W.S. (1996). Modelling setup times, process batches and transfer batches using activity network logic, European Journal of Operational Research 89:355–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demeulemeester, E.L., and Herroelen, W.S. (2002). Project Scheduling: A Research Handbook, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Dodin, B, and Elimam, A.A. (1997). Audit scheduling with overlapping activities and sequence-dependent setup costs, European Journal of Operational Research 97:22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drexl, A., Nissen, R., Patterson, J.H., and Salewski, F. (2000). ProGen/πx-An instance generator for resource-constrained project scheduling problems with partially renewable resources and further extensions, European Journal of Operational Research 125:59–72.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  14. Herroelen, W., Demeulemeester, E., and De Reyck, B. (1999). A classification scheme for project scheduling, in: Project Scheduling: Recent Models, Algorithms and Applications, J. Weglarz, ed., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  15. Kaplan, L. (1991). Resource-constrained Project Scheduling With Setup Times, Working Paper, Department of Management Science, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA, (unpublished).Google Scholar
  16. Kelley, J.E., Jr. (1961). Critical-path planning and scheduling: Mathematical basis, Operations Research 9:296–320.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kolisch, R. (1995). Project Scheduling under Resource Constraints-Efficient Heuristics for Several Problem Classes, Physica, Heidelberg.Google Scholar
  18. Mika, M., Waligóra, G., and Weglarz, J., (2003). A metaheuristic approach to scheduling workflow jobs on a grid, in: Grid Resource Management: State of the Art and Future Trends, J.M. Schopf, J. Nabrzyski, and J. Weglarz, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, pp. 295–318.Google Scholar
  19. Monma, C.L., and Potts, C.N. (1989). On the complexity of scheduling with batch setups, Operations Research 37:798–804.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. Neumann, K., Schwindt, Ch., and Zimmermann, J. (2003). Project Scheduling with Time Windows and Scarce Resources: Temporal and Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling with Regular and Nonregular Objective Functions, 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. Schwindt, Ch. (2005). Resource Allocation in Project Management, Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  22. Yang, W.H., and Liao, Ch.J. (1999). Survey of scheduling research involving setup times, International Journal of Systems Science 30:143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marek Mika
    • 1
  • Grzegorz Waligóra
    • 1
  • Jan Weglarz
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Computung SciencePoznań University of TechnologyPoznańPoland
  2. 2.Poznań Supercomputing and Networking CenterPoznańPoland

Personalised recommendations