Microbial Ecology During Vinification
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As outlined in Chapters 1 to 4, several genera and species of microorganisms can be found in grape musts and wines at various times during the winemaking process. For instance, Saccharomyces, Brettanomyces, and Pediococcus can be found together in wine (Fig. 6.1). Even with this wide diversity of microorganisms, vinifi cation commonly involves a sequential development of microorganisms (Fig. 6.2). In general, non-Saccharomyces yeasts will be the fi rst group to dominate during vinifi cation (Fig. 6.2A), followed by Saccharomyces that normally completes alcoholic fermentation (Fig. 6.2B). After the primary fermentation is fi nished, malolactic fermentation may be induced by Oenococcus or other lactic acid bacteria (Fig. 6.2C). During the aging of wines, several different yeasts and bacteria may grow, many of which bring about spoilage (Fig. 6.2D).
KeywordsLactic Acid Bacterium Alcoholic Fermentation Decanoic Acid Grape Juice Volatile Acidity
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