Hepatitis B and C Viruses

  • Frederick S. Nolte


Viral hepatitis is believed to have existed in antiquity, with references traced back to the fifth century BC. A new era in viral hepatitis was ushered in by the landmark discovery of Australia antigen, subsequently renamed hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) by Blumberg and coworkers in 1965.1 What followed was a rapid growth in information about the hepatitis B virus (HBV), development of serologic and molecular tests for HBV, understanding of the natural history and pathogenesis of infection, development and approval of antiviral therapies, and most importantly, the development of effective vaccines for prevention of HBV infection.


Sustained Virological Response Line Probe Assay 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Blumberg BS, Alter HJ, Visnich S. A “new” antigen in leukemia sera. JAMA. 1965;191:541–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Choo QL, Kuo G, Weiner AJ, Overby LR, Bradley DW, Houghton M. Isolation of a cDNA clone derived from a blood-borne non-A non-B viral hepatitis genome. Science. 1989;224:359–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lok AS, Heathcote EJ, Hoofnagle JH. Management of hepatitis B: 2000—summary of a workshop. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:1828–1853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dienstag JL, Schiff ER, Wright TL, et al. Lamivudine as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis B in the United States. N Eng J Med. 1999;341:1256–1263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Duverlie G, Khorsi H, Castelain S, et al. Sequence analysis of the NS5A protein of European hepatitis C virus 1b isolates and relation to interferon sensitivity. J Gen Virol. 1998;79:1373–1381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allen MI, Deslauriers M, Andrews CW, et al. Identification and characterization of mutations in hepatitis B virus resistant to lamivudine. Lamivudine Clinical Investigation Group. Hepatology. 1998;27:1670–1677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carman WF, Zanetti AR, Karayiannis P, et al. Vaccine-induced escape mutant of hepatitis B virus. Lancet. 1990;336:325–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hsu HY, Chang MH, Ni YH, Lin HH, Wang SM, Chen DS. Surface gene mutants of hepatitis B virus in infants who develop acute or chronic infections despite immunoprophylaxis. Hepatology. 1997;26:786–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McMahon G, Ehrlich PH, Moustafa ZA, et al. Genetic alterations in the gene encoding the major HBsAg: DNA and immunological analysis of recurrent HBsAg derived from monoclonal antibody-treated liver transplant patients. Hepatology. 1992;15:757–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Akahane Y, et al. Hepatitis B virus with mutations in the core promoter for an e antigen-negative phenotype in carriers with antibody to e antigen. J Virol. 1994;68:8102–8110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carman WF, Jacyna MR, Hadziyannis S, et al. Mutation preventing formation of hepatitis B e antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. Lancet. 1989;2:588–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miyakawa Y, Okamoto H, Mayumi M. The molecular basis of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative infections. J Viral Hepat. 1997;4:1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pas SD, Fries E, De Man RA, Osterhaus AD, Niesters HG. Development of a quantitative real-time detection assay for hepatitis B virus DNA and comparison with two commercial assays. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2897–2901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pawlotsky JM, Prescott L, Simmonds P, et al. Serological determination of hepatitis C virus genotype: comparison with a standardized genotyping assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1734–1739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zaaijer HL, ter Borg F, Cuypers TM, Hermus MCAH, Lelie PN. Comparison of methods for detection of hepatitis B virus DNA. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:2088–2091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gerken G, Gomes J, Lampertico P, et al. Clinical evaluation and applications of the Amplicor HBV Monitor test, a quantitative HBV DNA PCR assay. J Virol Methods. 1998;74:155–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Noborg U, Gusdal A, Pisa EK, Hedrum A, Lindh M. Automated quantitative analysis of hepatitis B virus DNA by using the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor test. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2793–2797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stuyver L, Van Geyt C, De Gendt S, et al. Line probe assay for monitoring drug resistance in hepatitis B virus-infected patients during antiviral therapy. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:702–707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lok AS, Chung HT, Liu VW, Ma OC. Long-term follow-up of chronic hepatitis B patients treated with interferon alfa. Gastroenterology. 1993;105:1833–1838.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    de Jongh FE, Janssen HL, de Man RA, Hop WC, Schalm SW, van Blankenstein M. Survival and prognostic indicators in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive cirrhosis of the liver. Gastroenterology. 1992;103:1630–1635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pawlotsky JM, Bastie A, Hezode C, et al. Routine detection and quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA in clinical laboratories: performance of three commercial assays. J Virol Methods. 2000;85:11–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Saldanha J, Gerlich W, Lelie N, Dawson P, Heermann K, Heath A; WHOCSG. An international collaborative study to establish a World Health Organization international standard for hepatitis B virus DNA nucleic acid amplification techniques. Vox Sang. 2001;80:63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krajden M, Comanor L, Rifkin O, Grigoriew A, Minor JM, Kapke GF. Assessment of hepatitis B virus DNA stability in serum by the Chiron Quantiplex branched-DNA assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:382–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Choo QL, Richman KH, Han JH, et al. Genetic organization and diversity of the hepatitis C virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991;88:2451–2455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okamoto H, Kurai K, Okada S, et al. Full-length sequence of a hepatitis C virus genome having poor homology to reported isolates: comparative study of four distinct genotypes. Virology. 1992;188:331–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bukh J, Purcell RH, Miller RH. At least 12 genotypes of hepatitis C virus predicted by sequence analysis of the putative E1 gene of isolates collected worldwide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1993;90:8234–8238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bukh J, Purcell RH, Miller RH. Sequence analysis of the core gene of 14 hepatitis C virus genotypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1994;91:8239–8243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Simmonds P, Holmes EC, Cha T-A, et al. Classification of hepatitis C virus into six major genotypes and a series of subtypes by phylogenetic analysis of the NS-5 region. J Gen Virol. 1993;74:2391–2399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bukh J, Miller RH, Purcell RH. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus: quasispecies and genotypes. Semin Liver Dis. 1995;15:41–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tokita H, Okamoto H, Iizuka H, et al. Hepatitis C virus variants from Jakarta, Indonesia classifiable into novel genotypes in the second (2e and 2f), tenth (10a) and eleventh (11a) genetic groups. J Gen Virol. 1996;77:293–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tokita H, Okamoto H, Tsuda F, et al. Hepatitis C virus variants from Vietnam are classifiable into the seventh, eighth, and ninth major genetic groups. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:11022–11026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lau JYN, Davis GL, Prescott LE, et al. and the Hepatitis Intervential Therapy Group. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes determined by line probe assay in patients with chronic hepatitis C seen at tertiary referral centers in the United States. Ann Intern Med. 1996;124:868–876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dusheiko G, Schmilovitz-Weiss H, Brown D, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes: an investigation of type-specific differences in geographic origin and disease. Hepatology. 1994;19:13–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Benvegnu L, Pontisso P, Cavalletto D, Noventa F, Chemello L, Alberti A. Lack of correlation between hepatitis C virus genotypes and clinical course of hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis. Hepatology. 1997;25:211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Poynard T, Bedossa P, Opolon P. Natural history of liver fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The OBSVIRC, METAVIR, CLINIVIR, and DOSVIRC groups. Lancet. 1997;349:825–832.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    National Institutes of Health. Management of hepatitis C. NIH Consens Statement. 2002;19:1–46.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1998;47:1–39.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    EASL International Consensus Conference on Hepatitic C. Consensus statement. J Hepatol. 1999;30:956–961.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dufour DR, Lott JA, Nolte FS, Gretch DR, Koff RS, Seeff LB. Diagnosis and monitoring of hepatic injury. II. Recommendations for use of laboratory tests in screening, diagnosis, and monitoring. Clin Chem. 2000;46:2050–2068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for laboratory testing and result reporting of antibody to hepatitis C virus. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.. 2003;52:1–15.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fanning L, Kenny-Walsh E, Levis J, et al. Natural fluctuations of hepatitis C viral load in the homogeneous patient population: a prospective study. Hepatology. 2000;31:225–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Eng J Med. 2002;347:975–982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lee SS, Heathcote EJ, Reddy KR, et al. Prognostic factors and early predictability of sustained viral response with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD). J Hepatol. 2002;37:500–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Poynard T, McHutchison JG, Goodman ZD, Ling M-H, Albrecht J for the ALGOVIRC Project Group. Is an “a la carte” combination interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin regimen possible for the first line treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2000;31:211–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schreiber GB, Busch MP, Kleinman SH, Korelitz JJ. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections. The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study. N Eng J Med. 1996;334:1685–1690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Legler TJ, Riggert J, Simson G, et al. Testing of individual blood donations for HCV RNA reduces the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV infection. Transfusion. 2000;40:1192–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kolk DP, Dockter J, Linnen J, et al. Significant closure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus preseroconversion detection windows with a transcription-mediated-amplification-driven assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1761–1766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ansaldi F, Torre F, Bruzzone BM, Picciotto A, Crovari P, Icardi G. Evaluation of a new hepatitis C virus sequencing assay as a routine method for genotyping. J Med Virol. 2001;63:17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Icardi G, Ansaldi F, Bruzzone BM, et al. Novel approach to reduce the hepatitis C virus (HCV) window period: clinical evaluation of a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HCV core antigen. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3110–3114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bouvier-Alias M, Patel K, Dahari H, et al. Clinical utility of total HCV core antigen quantification: a new indirect marker of HCV replication. Hepatology. 2002;36:211–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    McHutchison JG, Gordon S, Schiff ER, et al. for the Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. Interferon alpha-2b alone or in combination of ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. N Eng J Med. 1998;339:1485–1499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Poynard T, Marcellin P, Lee SS, et al. for the International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group (IHIT). Randomised trial of interferon α2b plus ribavirin for 48 weeks or for 24 weeks versus interferon α2b plus placebo for 48 weeks for treatment of chronic infection with hepatitis C virus. Lancet. 1998;352:1426–1432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    McCormick SE, Goodman ZD, Maydonovitch CL, Sjogren MH. Evaluation of liver histology, ALT elevation, and HCV RNA titer in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Am J Gastroenterol. 1996;91:1516–1522.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hohne M, Schreier E, Roggendorf M. Sequence variability in the envcoding region of hepatitis C virus isolated from patients infected during a single source outbreak. Arch Virol. 1994;137:25–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Power JP, Lawlor E, Davidson F, Holmes EC, Yap PL, Simmonds P. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of infection with hepatitis C virus in recipients of anti-D immunoglobulin. Lancet. 1995;345:1211–1213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bronowicki JP, Venard V, Botte C, et al. Patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis C virus during colonoscopy. N Eng J Med. 1997;337:237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Aizaki H, Saito A, Kusakawa I, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of a hepatitis C virus variant with an insertional mutation in its hypervariable region. J Hepatol. 1996;25:608–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Chayama K, Kobayashi M, Tsubota A, et al. Molecular analysis of intraspousal transmission of hepatitis C virus. J Hepatol. 1995;22:431–439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Healey CJ, Smith DB, Walker JL, et al. Acute hepatitis C infection after sexual exposure. Gut. 1995;36:148–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Weiner AJ, Thaler MM, Crawford K, et al. A unique, predominant hepatitis C virus variant found in an infant born to a mother with multiple variants. J Virol. 1993;67:4365–4368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Enomoto N, Sakuma I, Asahina Y, et al. Mutations in the nonstructural protein 5A gene and response to interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus 1b infection. N Eng J Med. 1996;334:77–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Watanabe H, Enomoto N, Nagayama K, et al. Number and position of mutations in the interferon (IFN) sensitivity—determining region of the gene for nonstructural protein 5A correlate with IFN efficacy in hepatitis C virus 1b infection. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1195–1203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hofgartner WT, Polyak SJ, Sullivan DG, Carithers RL, Gretch DR. Mutations in the NS5A gene of hepatitis C virus in North American patients infected with HCV genotype 1a or 1b. J Med Virol. 1997;53:118–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sarrazin C, Berg T, Lee JH, et al. Improved correlation between multiple mutations within the NS5A region and virological response in European patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus type 1b undergoing combination therapy. J Hepatol. 1999;30:1004–1013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Lee SC, Antony A, Lee N, et al. Improved version 2.0 qualitative and quantitative AMPLICOR reverse transcription-PCR tests for hepatitis C virus RNA: calibration to international units, enhanced genotype reactivity, and performance characteristics. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4171–4179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Nolte FS, Fried MW, Shiffman ML, et al. Prospective multicenter clinical evaluation of AMPLICOR and COBAS AMPLICOR hepatitis C virus tests. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4005–4012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Comanor L, Anderson F, Ghany M, et al. Transcription-mediated amplification is more sensitive than conventional PCR-based assays for detecting residual serum HCV RNA at end of treatment. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96:2968–2972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sarrazin C, Teuber G, Kokka R, Rabenau H, Zeuzem S. Detection of residual hepatitis C virus RNA by transcription-mediated amplification in patients with complete virologic response according to polymerase chain reaction-based assays. Hepatology. 2000;32:818–823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sarrazin C, Hendricks DA, Sedarati F, Zeuzem S. Assessment, by transcription-mediated amplification, of virologic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus treated with peginterferon alpha-2a. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2850–2855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Krajden M, Ziermann R, Khan A, et al. Qualitative detection of hepatitis C virus RNA: comparison of analytical sensitivity, clinical performance, and workflow of the Cobas Amplicor HCV test version 2.0 and the HCV RNA transcription-mediated amplification qualitative assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2903–2907.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jackson JB, Smith K, Knott C, et al. Sensitivity of the Procleix HIV-1/HCV assay for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and hepatitis C virus RNA in a high-risk population. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2387–2391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Beld M, Sentjens R, Rebers S, et al. Performance of the New Bayer VERSANT HCV RNA 3.0 assay for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA in plasma and serum: conversion to international units and comparison with the Roche COBAS Amplicor HCV Monitor, version 2.0, assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:788–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Germer JJ, Heimgartner PJ, Ilstrup DM, Harmsen WS, Jenkins GD, Patel R. Comparative evaluation of the Versant HCV RNA 3.0, Quantiplex HCV RNA 2.0, and COBAS Amplicor HCV Monitor version 2.0 Assays for quantification of hepatitis C virus RNA in serum. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:495–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kleiber J, Walter T, Haberhausen G, Tsang S, Babiel R, Rosenstraus M. Performance characteristics of a quantitative, homogeneous TaqMan RT-PCR test for HCV RNA. J Mol Diagn. 2000;2:158–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Barbeau JM, Goforth J, Caliendo AM, Nolte F. Performance characteristics of a quantitative, TaqMan hepatitis C virus RNA analyte specific reagent. J Clin Microbiol. 2004:in press.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Caliendo AM, Valsamakis A, Zhou Y, et al. Multilaboratory comparison of hepatitis C virus viral load assays. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1726–1732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Stuyver L, Wyseur A, van Arnhem W, Hernandez F, Maertens G. Second-generation line probe assay for hepatitis C virus genotyping. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:2259–2266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Andonov A, Chaudhary RK. Subtyping of hepatitis C virus isolates by a line probe assay using hybridization. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:254–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Viazov S, Zibert A, Ramakrishnan K, et al. Typing of hepatitis C virus isolates by DNA enzyme immunoassay. J Virol Methods. 1994;48:81–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Smith DB, McAllister J, Casino C, Simmonds P. Virus “quasispecies”: making a mountain out of a molehill? J Gen Virol. 1997;78:1511–1519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Ross RS, Viazov SO, Holtzer CD, et al. Genotyping of hepatitis C virus isolates using CLIP sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:3581–3584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Halfon P, Trimoulet P, Bourliere M, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotyping based on 5′ noncoding sequency analysis (Trugene). J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1771–1773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kalinina O, Norder H, Mukomolov S, Magnius LO. A natural intergenotypic recombinant of hepatitis C virus identified in St. Petersburg. J Virol. 2002;76:4034–4043.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hu YW, Balaskas E, Kessler G, et al. Primer specific and mispair extension analysis (PSMEA) as a simple approach to fast genotyping. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:5013–5015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Krekulova L, Rehak V, Wakil AE, Harris E, Riley LW. Nested restriction site-specific PCR to detect and type hepatitis C virus (HCV): a rapid method to distinguish HCV subtype 1b from other genotypes. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1774–1780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Davidson F, Simmonds P, Ferguson JC, Jarvis LM, et al. Survey of major genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis C virus using RFLP of sequences amplified from the 5′ non-coding region. J Gen Virol. 1995;76:1197–1204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    White PA, Zhai X, Carter I, Zhao Y, Rawlinson WD. Simplified hepatitis C virus genotyping by heteroduplex mobility analysis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:477–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bullock GC, Bruns DE, Haverstick DM. Hepatitis C genotype determination by melting curve analysis with a single set of fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes. Clin Chem. 2002;48:2147–2154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schroter M, Zollner B, Schafer P, et al. Genotyping of hepatitis C virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4 by a one-step LightCycler method using three different pairs of hybridization probes. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2046–2050.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Dixit V, Quan S, Martin P, et al. Evaluation of a novel serotyping system for hepatitis C virus: strong correlation with standard genotyping methodologies. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:2978–2983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Agnello V, Chung RT, Kaplan LM. A role for hepatitis C virus infection in type II cryoglobulinemia. N Eng J Med. 1992;327:1490–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Cribier B, Rey D, Schmitt C, Lang JM, Kirn A, Stoll-Keller F. High hepatitis C viraemia and impaired antibody response in patients coinfected with HIV. AIDS. 1995;9:1131–1136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fabrizi F, Poordad FF, Martin P. Hepatitis C infection and the patient with end-stage renal disease. Hepatology. 2002;36:3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Saldanha J, Lelie N, Heath A. Establishment of the first international standard for nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays for HCV RNA. WHO Collaborative Study Group. Vox Sang. 1999;76:149–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stelzl E, Kormann-Klement A, Haas J, et al. Evaluation of an automated sample preparation protocol for quantitative detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1447–1450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nolte F, Green AM, Fiebelkorn KR, et al. Clinical evaluation of two methods for genotyping hepatitis C virus based on analysis of the 5′ noncoding region. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1558–1564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick S. Nolte
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Pathology and Laboratory MedicineEmory University School of MedicineUSA
  2. 2.Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Diagnostic LaboratoriesEmory Medical LaboratoriesAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations