Three Dimensional Material Processing with Femtosecond Lasers

  • Aleksandr Ovsianikov
  • Sven Passinger
  • Ruth Houbertz
  • Boris N. Chichkov
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 129)

5. Summary and Outlook

Recent progress in three-dimensional microstructuring of photosensitive materials by femtosecond lasers has been reviewed. Due to the nonlinear nature of multiphoton laser-activated processing, application of ultrashort laser systems allows one to overcome the diffraction limit and to produce high-quality 3D microstructures with a subwavelength resolution. This is very powerful technology with many potential applications which have been briefly discussed in this chapter.

This 3D nonlinear laser processing technique is still in a rapidly developing phase and represents a very exciting field of laser physics and novel laser material processing technologies.


Photonic Crystal Femtosecond Laser Negative Photoresist Positive Photoresist Photosensitive Material 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albrecht, D.R., Tsang, V.L., Sah, R.L., and Bhatia, S.N., 2005, Lab. Chip. 5, 111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amberg-Schwab, S., Arpac, E., Glaubitt, W., Rose, K., Schottner, G. and Schubert, U., 1991, Materials Science Monographs — High Performance Ceramic Films and Coatings, Vol. 67 (Ed: P. Vincencini), Elsevier, Amsterdam, p. 203.Google Scholar
  3. Blanco, A., Busch, K., Deubel, M., Enkrich, C., Von Freymann, G., Hermatschweiler, M., Koch, W., Linden, S., Meisel, D.C. and Wegener, M., “Three-dimensional lithograohy of Photonic-Crystals in Photonic Crytsals”, edited by Busch, K., Lölkes, S., Wehrspohn, R. B., Föll, H., 2004, Wiley-VCH, 153–173Google Scholar
  4. Bräuer, A., Dannberg, P., Mann, G. and Popall, M., 2001, MRS Bull. 26, 519Google Scholar
  5. Brinker, C.J. and Scherer, W.G., 1990, Sol-Gel Science, Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryant, S.J., Chowdhury, T.T., Lee, D.A., Bader, D.L., and Anseth, K.S., 2004, Ann. Biomed. Eng., 22, 407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buestrich, R., Kahlenberg, F., Popall, M, Dannberg, P., Müller-Fiedler, R. and Rösch, O., 2001, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 20, 181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Campbell, M., Sharp, D. N., Harrison, M. T., Denning, R. G. and Turberfield, A. J., 2000, Nature London 404, 53CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. Chichkov, B. N., Koch, J., Ovsianikov, A., Passinger, S., Reinhardt, C. and Serbin, J., 2005, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., 850, MM2.5.1Google Scholar
  10. Chutinan, A. and Noda, S., 1999, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 16, 240ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cumpston, B. H., Ananthavel, S. P., Barlow, S., Dyer, D. L., Ehrlich, J. E., Erskine, L. L., Heikal, A. A., Kuebler, S. M., Lee, I.-Y. S., McCord-Maughon, D., Qin, J., Röckel, H., Rumi, M., Wu, X.-L., Marder, S. R. and Perry, J. W., 1999, Nature, 398, 51CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. Depré, L., Ingram, M., Poinsignon, Ch. and Popall, M., 2000, Electrochim. Acta 45, 1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deubel, M., Von Freymann, G., Wegener, M., Pereira, S., Busch, K. and Soukoulis, C.M., 2004, Nature Materials, 3, 444CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. Deubel, M, Von Freymann, G., Wegener, M., Pereira, S., Busch, K. and Soukoulis, C. M., 2004, Nature Materials 3, 444CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. Doraiswamy, A., Patz, T., Narayanl, R., Chichkov, B., Ovsianikov, A., Houbertz, R., Modi, R., Auyeung, R., Chrisey, D. B., 2005, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., Vol. 845.Google Scholar
  16. Duneau, M., Delyon, F. and Audier, M., 2004, J. Appl. Phys., 96, 2428CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. Fröhlich, L., Houbertz, R., Jacob, S., Popall, M., Mueller-Fliedler, R., Graf, J., Munk, M. and Von Zychlinski, H., 2002, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 726, 349Google Scholar
  18. Haas, K.-H., 2000, Adv. Eng. Mater. 2, 571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Houbertz, R., Domann, G., Cronauer, C., Schmitt, A., Martin, H., Park, J.-U., Fröhlich, L., Buestrich, R., Popall, M., Streppel, U., Dannberg, P., Wächter, C. and Bräuer, A., 2003, Thin Solid Films 442, 194CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. Houbertz, R., Domann, G., Schulz, J., Olsowski, B., Fröhlich, L. and Kim, W.-S., 2004, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1105CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. Houbertz, R., Domann, G., Schulz, J., Popall, M., 2003, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 769, 239Google Scholar
  22. Houbertz, R., Fröhlich, L., Popall, M., Streppel, U., Dannberg, P., Bräuer, A., Serbin, J. and Chichkov, B.N., 2003, Adv. Eng. Mater. 5, 551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Houbertz, R., Schulz, J. and Popall, M., 2001, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 665, 321Google Scholar
  24. Ito, T. and Okazaki, S., 2000, Nature 406, 1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. John, S., 1987, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. Kahlenberg. F. and Popall, M., 2005, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 847, EE14.4.1Google Scholar
  27. Kawata, S., Sun, H.-B., Tanaka, T. and Takada, K., 2001, Nature, 412, 697CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. Levinson, H.J., 2001, Principles of Lithography, SPIE pressGoogle Scholar
  29. Lin, Y., Herman, P.R. and Darmawikarta, K., 2005, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 071117CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. Maruo, S., Nakamura, O. and Kawata, S., 1997, Opt. Lett, 22, 132ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Miklyaev et al., 2003, Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 1284CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. Narayan, R. J., Jin, C, Patz, T., Doraiswamy, A., Modi, R., Chrisey, D. B., Su, Y-Y., Lin, S. J., Ovsianikov, A. and Chichkov, B., 2005, Advanced Materials & Processes, 39, AprilGoogle Scholar
  33. Popall, M., Andrei, M., Kappel, J., Kron, J., Olma, K. and Olsowski, B., 1998, Electrochim. Acta 43, 1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Prasad, P. N., “Nanophotonics”, 2004, John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  35. Robertsson, M.E., Hagel, O.J., Gustafsson, G., Dabek, A., Popall, M., Cergel, L., Wennekers, P., Kiely, P., Lebby, M. and Lindhal, T., 1998, Proc. 48 th Electron. Comp. Technol. Conf. (Seattle, Washington, USA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. IEEE Catalogue No. 98CH36206 (1998), p. 1413.Google Scholar
  36. Rose, K., 1995, in: Organosilicon Chemistry II, Auner, N., and Weis, J., (eds.), VCH Weinheim, Germany, p. 649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rousseau, A. and Boutevin, B., 1992, Proc. Of the Plastic Optical Fibrers Conference (Paris) p. 33.Google Scholar
  38. Schottner, G., 2001, Chem. Mater. 13, 3422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Serbin, J., Egbert, A., Ostendorf, A., Chichkov, B. N., Houbertz, R., Domann, G., Schulz, J., Cronauer, J., Fröhlich, L. and Popall, M., 2003, Opt. Lett. 28, 301ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Serbin, J., Ovsianikov, A. and Chichkov, B., 2004, Opt. Express, 12, 5221CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Shoji, S. and Kawata, S., 2000, Appl. Phys. Lett., 76, 2668CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. Shoji, S., Sun, H.-B. and Kawata, S., 2003, Appl. Phys. Lett., 83, 608CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. Streppel, U., Dannberg, P., Wächter, Ch., Bräuer, A., Fröhlich, L., Houbertz, R. and Popall, M., 2002, Opt. Mater. 21, 475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sun, H-B., Kawata, S., 2004, “Two-Photon Photopolymerization and 3D Lithographic Microfabrication”, Springer VerlagGoogle Scholar
  45. Sun, H-B., Matsuo, S. and Misawa, H., 1999, Appl. Phys. Lett., 74, 786CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. Sun, H-B., Mizeikis, V., Xu, Y., Juodkazis, S., Ye, J-Y., Matsuo, S. and Misawa, H., 2001, Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 1CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. Wang, X., et al., 2003, Appl. Phys. Lett., 82, 2212CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. Wolter, H., Storch, W. and Ott, H., 1994, Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 346, 143Google Scholar
  49. www.voco.comGoogle Scholar
  50. Yablonovitch, E., 1987, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aleksandr Ovsianikov
    • 1
  • Sven Passinger
    • 1
  • Ruth Houbertz
    • 2
  • Boris N. Chichkov
    • 1
  1. 1.Laser Zentrum Hannover e. V.HannoverGermany
  2. 2.Fraunhoffer-Institut für SilicatforschungWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations