Surgical Treatment of Acute and Chronic ACL/PCL/Medial Side Injuries of the Knee

  • Craig H. Bennett
  • Kevin E. Coates
  • Corey Wallach
  • Ronald A. Hall


This chapter discusses management of the acute and chronic knee injury that can occur with any type of knee dislocation. The focus is on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), and medial side knee injuries following dislocation.


Anterior Cruciate Ligament Cruciate Ligament Posterior Cruciate Ligament Femoral Tunnel Medial Collateral Ligament 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Green NE, Allen BL. Vascular injuries associated with dislocation of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1977; 59 (2): 236–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Quinlan AG, Sharrard WJW. Postero-lateral dislocation of the knee with capsular interposition. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1958; 40: 660–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Good L, Johnson RJ. The dislocated knee. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1995; 3 (5): 284–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Almekinders LC. Results following treatment of traumatic dislocations of the knee joint. Clin Orthop 1992; (284):203–207.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sisto DJ, Warren RE Complete knee dislocation: a follow-up study of operative treatment. Clin Orthop 1985; 198: 94–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    McCoy GF. Vascular injury associated with low-velocity dislocations of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1987; 69 (2): 285–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shields L, Mital M, Cave EF. Complete dislocation of the knee: experience at the Massachusetts General Hospital. J Trauma 1969; 6: 192–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Meyers MH, Moore TM, Harvey JP. Traumatic dislocation of the knee joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1975; 57 (3): 430–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taylor AR, Williams E. Traumatic dislocation of the knee. A report of forty-three cases with special reference to conservative treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1972; 54 (1): 96–102.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Frassica FJ, Sim FH, Staeheli JW, Pairolero PC. Dislocation of the knee. Clin Orthop 1991; (263):200–205.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meyers MH. Traumatic dislocation of the knee joint. A study of eighteen cases. J Bone Joint Surg 1971; 53 (1): 16–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shelbourne KD, et al. Low-velocity knee dislocation. Orthop Rev 1991; 20 (11): 995–1004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shapiro MS, Freedman EL. Allograft reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments after traumatic knee dislocation. Am J Sports Med 1995; 23 (5): 580–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fanelli GC, et al. Arthroscopically assisted combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy 1996; 12 (1): 5–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Noyes FR. Reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments after knee dislocation. Use of early protected postoperative motion to decrease arthrofibrosis. Am J Sports Med 1997; 25 (5): 626–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wascher DC, et al. Reconstruction of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments after knee dislocation. Results using fresh-frozen nonirradiated allografts. Am J Sports Med 1999; 27 (2): 189–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yeh WL, et al. Knee dislocation: treatment of high-velocity knee dislocation. J Trauma Inj Infect Cri Care 1999; 46 (4): 693–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Arnoczky SP. Replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament using a patellar tendon allograft. An experimental study. J Bone Joint Surg 1986; 68 (3): 376–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jackson DW. Biologic incorporation of allograft anterior cruciate ligament replacements. Clin Orthop 1996; (324):126–133.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harner CD. Allograft versus autograft anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 3- to 5-year outcome. Clin Orthop 1996; (324):134–144.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Indelicato PA. Clinical comparison of freeze-dried and fresh frozen patellar tendon allografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction of the knee. Am J Sports Med 1990; 18 (4): 335–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Indelicato PA. The results of fresh-frozen patellar tendon allografts for chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency of the knee. Am J Sports Med 1992; 20 (2): 118–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Noyes FR. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with human allo-graft. Comparison of early and later results. J Bone Joint Surg 1996; 78 (4): 524–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shino K, Inoue M, Horibe S, Hamada M, Ono K. Am J Sports Med 1990; 18 (5): 457–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harner CD, Hoher J, Vogrin TM. The effect of sectioning of the posterolateral structures on the in situ forces in the human posterior cruciate ligament. Trans Orthop Res Soc 1998; 23: 47.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clancy WG Jr. Treatment of knee joint instability secondary to rupture of the posterior cruciate ligament. Report of a new procedure. J Bone Joint Surg 1983; 65 (3): 310–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kusayama T, Harner CD, Carlin GJ, Xerogeanes JW, Smith BA. Anatomical and biomechanical characteristics of human meniscofemoral ligaments. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthros 1994; 2 (4): 234–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harner CD. Evaluation and treatment of posterior cruciate ligament injuries. Am J Sports Med 1998; 26 (3): 471–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Harner CD. The human posterior cruciate ligament complex: an interdisciplinary study. Ligament morphology and biomechanical evaluation. Am J Sports Med 1995; 23 (6): 736–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bullis DW. Reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament with allograft. Clin Sports Med 1994; 13 (3): 581–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fu FH, Bennett CH, Latterman C, Ma CB. Current trends in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. 1: Biology and biomechanics of reconstruction. Am J Sports Med 1999; 27 (6): 821–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Craig H. Bennett
  • Kevin E. Coates
  • Corey Wallach
  • Ronald A. Hall

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations