Advertisement

The Physical Genotype

Chapter
  • 301 Downloads

Abtract

The genetic analysis we have described so far has dealt with functional genes. In these, the detection of a difference in genotype depends on the functional expression of the genes concerned. Recognizing a white-spored mutation as a character distinct from the black spore phenotype obviously depends upon the function of the gene or genes that control pigmentation, but it is also dependent on the expression of all those other gene functions that contribute to sporulation. Unless the culture can be encouraged to sporulate, the spore color cannot be scored.Even though the mutated pigmentation gene is present in every nucleus its presence can only be scored in the specific cell type in which it is expressed. The fact remains, however, that the pigmentation mutation is represented in the genotype of the organism at the DNA level. The white-spored DNA must have a different sequence to the black-spored DNA. If that difference in DNA sequence could be detected directly using recombinant DNA technologies, then the resultant molecular markers would be scorable in DNA from any nucleus of the organism, quite independently of the functioning of the pigmentation gene.

Keywords

Transposable Element Aspergillus Nidulans Agaricus Bisporus Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Restriction Phenotype 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Publications and Websites Worth a Visit

  1. Bertini, L., Agostini, D., Potenza, L., Rossi, I., Zeppa, S., Zambonelli, A. & Stocchi, V. (1998). Molecular markers for the identification of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii. New Phytologist 139, 565–570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowyer, P. (2001). DNA-mediated transformation of fungi. In Molecular and Cellular Biology of Filamentous Fungi (N.J. Talbot, ed.), pp. 33–46. Oxford University Press: Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  3. Burgess, T. Wingfield, M.J. & Wingfield, B.W. (2001). Simple sequence repeat markers distinguish among morphotypes of Sphaeropsis sapinea. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 67, 354–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cambareri, E.B., Aisner, R. & Carbon, J. (1998). Structure of the chromosome VII centromere region in Neurospora crassa: degenerate transposons and simple repeats. Molecular and Cellular Biology 18, 5465–5477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chew, J.S.K., Strongman, D.B. & MacKay, R. (1997). RFLP analysis of rRNA intergenic spacer regions of 23 isolates of the entomopathogen Paecilomyces farinosus. Canadian Journal of Botany 75, 2038–2044.Google Scholar
  6. Chiu, S.W., Wang, Z.M., Chiu, W.T., Lin, EC. & Moore, D. (1999). An integrated study of individualism in Lentinula edodes in nature and its implication for cultivation strategy. Mycological Research 103, 651–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Debets, F. (1996). Use of a heterologous gene as marker for genetic analysis in Aspergillus nidulans. In Fungal Genetics: Principles and Practice (C.J. Bos, ed.), pp. 273–280. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York.Google Scholar
  8. Dupont, X, Magnin, S., Marti, A. & Brousse, M. (1999). Molecular tools for identification of Penicillium starter cultures used in the food industry. International Journal of Food Microbiology 49, 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Geiser, D.M., Arnold, M.L. & Timberlake, WE. (1996). Wild chromosome variants in Aspergillus nidulans. Current Genetics 29, 293–300.Google Scholar
  10. Geistlinger, X, Weising, K., Kaiser, W.J.& Kahl, G. (1997). Allelic variation at a hyper-variable compound microsatellite locus in the ascomycete Ascochyta rabiei. Molecular and General Genetics 256, 298–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Giraud, T., Fortini, D., Levis, C. & Brygoo, Y. (1998). The minisatellite, MSB1, in the fungus Botrytis cinerea, probably mutates by slippage. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15, 1524–1531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Goosen, T. & Debets, F. (1996). Molecular genetic analysis. In Fungal Genetics: Principles and Practice (C.J. Bos, ed.), pp. 97–117. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York.Google Scholar
  13. Jackson, C.J., Barton, R.C. & Evans, E.G.V. (1999). Species identification and strain differentiation of dermatophyte fungi by analysis of ribosomal-DNA intergenic spacer regions. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 931–936.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim, S.H., Han, A., Kronstad, J. & Breuil, C. (1999). Differentiation of sapstain fungi by restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns in nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA. FEMS Microbiology Letters 177, 151–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Magee, P.T. & Scherer, S. (1996). Construction of a physical map of the Candida albicans genome. In Fungal Genetics: Principles and Practice (C.J. Bos, ed.), pp. 259–272. Marcel Dekker, Inc.: New York.Google Scholar
  16. Milgroom, M.G., Wang, K.R., Zhou, Y, Lipari, S.E. & Kaneko, S. (1996). Intercontinental population structure of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica. Mycologia 88, 179–190.Google Scholar
  17. Nakayashiki, H., Nishimoto, N, Ikeda, K., Tosa, Y & Mayama, S. (1999). Degenerate MAGGY elements in a subgroup of Pyricularia grisea: a possible example of successful capture of a genetic invader by a fungal genome. Molecular and General Genetics 261, 958–966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2002

Personalised recommendations