Advertisement

Social Axioms and Individualistic–Collectivist Orientations in Indian College Students

Chapter
  • 825 Downloads
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology book series (ICUP)

Leung et al. (2002) have identified five dimensions of social axioms about the world in which each individual functions, though the structure of these beliefs varies somewhat from culture to culture. These five dimensions are social cynicism, reward for application, social complexity, fate control, and religiosity. The present study explores the pattern of social axioms in students of a collecti-vist society, namely, India, and compares the relationship of the axiom dimensions with individualistic—collectivist orientations. Male and female students (N = 172) from two different regions of Eastern India completed the Social Axioms Survey and the Horizontal—Vertical Individualism—Collectivism Scale. The findings reveal that reward for application is the strongest belief for this group of students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that horizontal—vertical collectivism and horizontal individualism of students can be efficiently predicted by one's general belief in reward for application. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) results indicated a significant main effect of gender on fate control. Regional variation and one's position in a caste system also affect one's endorsement of social axioms. Although considerable convergence of some of the dimensions of social axioms with individualism—collectivism values was observed, distinctiveness of the constructs is also clear from the results, which need further examination in diverse Indian communities across the generations.

Keywords

Hierarchical Regression Analysis Social Complexity Collectivist Culture Fate Control Schedule Tribe 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bond, M. H., Leung, K., Au, A., Tong, K. K., & Chemonges-Nelson, Z. (2004). Combining social axioms with values in predicting social behaviors. European Journal of Personality, 18, 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen, S. X., Fok, H. K., Bond, M. H., & Matsumoto, D. (2006). Personality and beliefs about the world revisited: Expanding the nomological network of social axioms. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ghosh, A. (2003). Diverse individualistic—collectivist orientations and achievement value in college students. Paper presented at the regional conference of International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Winchester, England, July 7–11.Google Scholar
  4. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  5. Kurman, J., & Ronen-Eilon, C. (2004). Lack of knowledge of a culture's social axioms and adaptation difficulties among immigrants. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 192–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Leung, K., Au, A., Huang, X., Kurman, J., Niit, T., & Niit, K. (2007). Social axioms and values: A cross-cultural examination. European Journal of Personality, 21, 91–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. (2004). Social axioms: A model for social beliefs in multi-cultural perspective. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 36, pp. 119–197). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  8. Leung, K., Bond, M. H., Reimel de Carrasquel, S., Munoz, C., Hernandez, M., Murakami, F., Yamaguchi, S., Bierbrauer, G., & Singelis, T. M. (2002). Social axioms: The search for universal dimensions of general beliefs about how the world functions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 286–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mishra, R. C. (1994). Individualist and collectivist orientations across generations. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S.C. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism (pp. 225–238). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Rupf, M., & Boehnke, K. (2003). Hierarchic self-interest and political delinquency: Do social axioms serve as moderators? Poster presented in the regional conference of International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, Winchester, England, July 7–11.Google Scholar
  11. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 25, pp. 1–65). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  12. Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (1995). Horizontal and vertical aspects of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research, 29, 240–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Sinha, D., & Tripathi, R. C. (1994). Individualism in a collectivist culture: A case of coexistence of opposites. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S. Choi, & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism (pp. 123–138). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Sinha, J. B. P., Sinha, T. N., Verma, J., & Sinha, R. B. N. (2001). Collectivism coexisting with individualism: An Indian scenario. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  16. Triandis, H. C., & Gelfand, M. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical aspects of individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 118–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology Research UnitIndian Statistical InstituteCalcuttaIndia

Personalised recommendations