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Endogenous Retroviruses and Cancer

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Retroviruses and Insights into Cancer

Abstract

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) abound in avian and mammalian genomes, including humans, as a result of germline infections by exogenous retroviruses. Most ERVs are defective for production of infectious virus. The defectiveness of ERVs is generally inversely correlated with the length of their residence in the host germline. These ERVs affect retrovirus-induced disease in a number of ways, including manipulation of the immune response, inhibition or facilitation of entry or other steps of virus replication, or as participants in the generation of infectious pathogenic viruses. Ancient ERVs likely have neutral or beneficial roles for the hosts that carry them. However, multiple examples show that additional pathogenic retroviruses will continue to emerge using ERVs as a source of genetic diversity.

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Dudley, J.P., Mertz, J.A., Bhadra, S., Palmarini, M., Kozak, C.A. (2010). Endogenous Retroviruses and Cancer. In: Dudley, J. (eds) Retroviruses and Insights into Cancer. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09581-3_5

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