Magnetic Fields in Supernovae

  • Shizuka Akiyama
  • J. Craig Wheeler
Part of the Astrophysics and Space Science Library book series (ASSL, volume 302)


A relatively modest value of the initial rotation of the iron core, a period of ∽ 6 – 31 s, will give a very rapidly rotating protoneutron star and hence strong differential rotation with respect to the infalling matter. Under these conditions, a seed field is expected to be amplified by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and to grow exponentially. Exponential growth of the field on the time scale Ω-1 by the MRI will dominate the linear growth process of field line “wrapping” with the same characteristic time. The shear is strongest at the boundary of the newly formed protoneutron star. Modest initial rotation velocities of the iron core result in sub-Keplerian rotation and a sub-equipartition magnetic field that nevertheless produce substantial magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) luminosity and hoop stresses: saturation fields of order 1015 — 1016 G develop ∽ — 300 msec after bounce with an associated MHD luminosity of ∽ — 1049 — 1053 erg s-1 . Bi-polar flows driven by this MHD power can affect or even cause the explosions associated with core-collapse supernovae. If the initial rotation is too slow, then there will not be enough rotational energy to power the supernova despite the high luminosities. The MRI should be active and may qualitatively alter the flow if a black hole forms directly or after a fall-back delay.


Supernova jets MHD 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akiyama, S., Wheeler, J. C., Meier, D. L. & Lichtenstadt, I. 2002, ApJ, in press (astro-ph/0208128)Google Scholar
  2. Aloy, M. A., Ibáñez, J. M., Martí, J. M., Gómez, J.-L., & Müller, E. 1999, Ap. J. (Letters), 523, L125ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balbus, S. A. & Hawley, J. F. 1991, Ap. J., 376, 214ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Balbus, S. A. & Hawley, J. F. 1998, Review of Modern Physics, 70, 1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S. 1971, Soviet Astronomy AJ, 14, 652MathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  6. Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., & Ruzmaikin, A. A. 1976, Ap & Sp. Sci., 42, 401ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blandford, R. D., & Payne, D. G. 1982, MNRAS, 199, 883ADSzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Dubner, G., Giacani, E., Gaensler, B. M., Goss, W. M. & Green. 2002, in Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants, eds. P. O. Slane & B. M. Gaensler (Astron. Soc. Pac.: Provo), in press (astro-ph/0112155)Google Scholar
  9. Fesen, R. A., & Gunderson, K. S. 1996, Ap. J., 470, 967ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fesen, R. A. 2001 Ap. J. Suppl., 133, 161ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fryer, C. L. & Heger, A. 2000, Ap. J., 541, 1033ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goussard, J-O., Haensel, P., & Zdunik, J. L. 1998, Astr. Ap., 330, 1005ADSGoogle Scholar
  13. Hawley, J. F., Gammie, C. E, & Balbus, S. A. 1996, Ap. J., 464, 690ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hawley, J. F. & Balbus, S. A. 2002, Ap. J., in press (astro-ph/0203309)Google Scholar
  15. Heger, A., Langer, N., & Woosley, S. E. 2000, Ap. J., 528, 368ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heger, A. & Woosley, S. E. 2002, astro-ph/0206005Google Scholar
  17. Helfand, D. J., Gotthelf, E. V., & Halpern, J. P. 2001, Ap. J., 556, 380ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Höflich, P., Khokhlov, A., & Wang, L. 2001, in Proc. of the 20th Texas Symposium on Relativistic Astrophysics, eds. J. C. Wheeler & H. Martel (New York: AIP), 459Google Scholar
  19. Hughes, J. P., Rakowski, C. E., Burrows, D. N., & Slane, P. O. 2000, Ap. J. (Letters), 528, L109ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hwang, U., Holt, S. S., & Petre, R. 2000, Ap. J. (Letters), 537, L119 & MeyerHofmeister, E., & Thomas, H. C. 1970, Astr. Ap., 5, 155Google Scholar
  21. Khokhlov, A. M., Höflich, P., Oran, E. S., Wheeler, J. C., Wang, L., & Chtchelkanova, A. Yu. 1999, Ap. J. (Letters), 524, L107ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Khokhlov, A., & Höflich, P. 2001, in AIP Conf. Proc. No. 556, Explosive Phenomena in Astrophysical Compact Objects, eds. H.-Y. Chang, C.-H. Lee, & M. Rho (New York: AIP), 301Google Scholar
  23. Koide, S., Meier, D. L., Shibata, L., & Kudoh, T. 2000, Ap. J., 536, 668ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kundt, W. 1976, Nature, 261, 673ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Laming, J. M. 1999, New Astronomy, 4, 389ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leonard, D. C., Filippenko, A. V., Barth, A. J., & Matheson, T. 2000, Ap. J., 536, 239ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Leonard, D. C., Filippenko, A. V., Ardila, D. R., & Brotherton, M. S. 2001, Ap. J., 553, 861ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li, L. 2002, Ap. J., 564, 108ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacFadyen, A. & Woosley, S. E. 1999, ApJ, 524, 262ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. MacFadyen, A., Woosley, S. E., & Heger, A. 2001, ApJ, 550, 410ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Matzner, C. D. 2002, MNRAS, in press (astro-ph/0203085)Google Scholar
  32. Medvedev, M. V. & Loeb, A. 1999, ApJ, 526, 697ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meier, D. L. 1999, Ap. J., 522, 753ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meier, D. L., Koide, S., &, Uchida, Y. 2001, Science, 291, 84ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mészáros, P. & Rees, M. J. 2001, ApJ, 556, L37ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Mönchmeyer, R. & Müller, E. 1989, in Timing Neutron Stars, ed. H. Ogelman & E. P. J. van den Heuvel (NATO ASI Ser. C, 262; New Tork: ASI), 549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Myra, E. S., Bludman, S. A., Hoffman, Y., Lichtenstadt, I., Sack, N., & van Riper, K. A. 1987, Ap. J, 318, 744ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ogilvie, G. I. 2001, MNRAS, 325, 231ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ostriker, J. P., & Gunn, J. E. 1971, Ap. J. (Letters), 164, L95ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pun, C. S. J., & Supernova INtensive Studies (SINS) Collaboration. 2001, AAS, 199, 9402ADSGoogle Scholar
  41. Ramirez Ruiz, E., Celotti, A. & Rees, M. J. 2002, MNRAS, in press (astroph/0205108)Google Scholar
  42. Ruderman, M. A., Tao, L., & Kluzniak, W. 2000, Ap. J., 542, 243ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Spruit, H. C. 2002, Astr. Ap., 381, 923ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Spruit, H.C., & Phinney, E. S. 1998, Nature, 393, 139ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Spruit, H. C., Daigne, F., & Drenkhahn, G. 2001, Astr. Ap., 369, 694ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tan, J. C., Matzner, C. D., & McKee, C. F. 2001, ApJ, 551, 946ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thompson, C. & Duncan, R. C. 1996, Ap. J., 473, 322ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thompson, C., & Murray, N. 2002, preprint (astro-ph/0105425)Google Scholar
  49. Vishniac, E. T. & Cho, J. 2001, Ap. J., 550, 752ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wang, L., Wheeler, J. C., Li, Z. W., & Clocchiatti, A. 1996, Ap. J., 467, 435ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wang, L., Howell, D. A., Höflich, P., & Wheeler, J. C. 2001, Ap. J., 550, 1030ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wang, L., Weeler, J.C., Hoflich, P., Khokhlov, A., Baade, D., Branch, D., Challis, P., Filippenko, A.V., Fransson, C., Garnavich, P., Kirshner, R.P., Lundqvist, P., McCray, R., Panaja, N., Pun, C.S.J., Phillips, M.M., Sonneborn, G., Suntzeff, N.B. 2002, Ap. J., in press (astro-ph/0205337)Google Scholar
  53. Weisskopf, M. C., Hester, J. J., Tennant, A. F., Elsner, R. F., Schulz, N. S., Marshall, H. L., Karovska, M., Nicholas, J. S., Swartz, D. A., Kolodziejczak, J. J., & O’Dell, S. L. 2000, Ap. J. (Letters), 536, L81ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wheeler, J. C., Yi, I., Höflich, P., Wang, L. 2000, Ap. J., 537, 810ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wheeler, J. C., Meier, D. L., & Wilson, J. R. 2002, Ap. J., 568, 807ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Williams, P. T., IAOC Workshop “Galactic Star Formation Across the Stellar Mass Spectrum,” ASP Conference Series, ed. J. M. De Buizer, in press (astroph/0206230)Google Scholar
  57. Woosley, S. E., & Heger, A. 2001, AAS, 198, 3801ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. Willingale, R., Bleeker, J. A. M., van der Heyden, K. J., Kaastra, J. S. & Vink, J. 2002, Astr. Ap., 381, 1039ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yamada, S., & Sato, K. 1994, Ap. J., 434, 268ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang, W., Woosley, S. E. & MacFadyen, A. I. 2002, ApJ, in press (astroph/0207436)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shizuka Akiyama
    • 1
  • J. Craig Wheeler
    • 1
  1. 1.Astronomy departmentUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations