Finland gained independence in 1917 as a part of the great upheaval in Russia. Finland had become a Grand Duchy of Imperial Russia in 1809 as a consequence of the Napoleonic wars. Before that Finland was part of the Kingdom of Sweden. During the Russian period autonomy was granted to the extent that Finland had its own currency, Finnish language enjoyed an official position, a national education system was created and a national parliament established. The country thus maintained many elements of statehood even before independence.


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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esko Antola

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