Spain

  • Ignacio Molina
  • Fernando Rodrigo
Part of the Studies in Diplomacy and International Relations book series (SID)

Abstract

The last two decades of the twentieth century have seen a number of extraordinary transformations in the foreign policy of all European states, marked by the significant progress made in supranational integration, growing global interdependence and the end of the Cold War. However, in Spain, changes in the international arena have been enhanced by developments within the domestic framework. The simultaneous processes of democratisation, territorial decentralisation and accession to the European Community/ Union (EC/EU) have had a decisive effect, turning foreign policy making into something more complex and more closely linked to the domestic political sphere. This chapter examines how the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores, MAE) has adapted itself to the transformation in Spanish foreign policy making. At first sight, the role of the ministry seems to have been reduced from its traditional status as the only Spanish player in international affairs. However, this does not necessarily imply its progressive decline within the Spanish polity. In fact, the more pluralistic and complex context in which foreign policy is elaborated can paradoxically favour the MAE as a new horizontal actor of the core executive.

Keywords

Europe Coherence Expense Dition Arena 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    Ch. T. Powell, ‘Cambio de régimen y politica exterior: España, 1975–1989’ (Regime change and foreign policy: Spain, 1975–1989).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    In Tusell, J. et al. (eds) La política exterior de España en el siglo XX (Spain’s foreign policy during the 20th century) (Madrid: UNED, 2000), p. 448.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Dastis, ‘La administratión española ante la Unión Europea’ (Spain’s administration before the European Union), Revista de Estudios Políticos, 90 (1995), p. 331; MAP, ‘La necesaria y continua adaptatión de la administratión española al proceso de integratión europea’ (la consolidación de un nuevo marco de actuatión) (The essential and constant adaptation of the Spanish administration to the process of European integration (the consolidation of a new framework for action)), in Contributión al análisis de la Administratión General del Estado: Ideas para un plan estratégico (Contribution to the analysis of the State’s General Administration: ideas for a strategic plan), (Madrid: Ministerio para las Administraciones Públicas, 1997), p. 167.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Cotarelo, ‘La política exterior de España’ (Spain’s foreign policy), in P. Román (ed.) Sisterna Político Español (Spanish political system) (Madrid: McGraw-Hill, 1995).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    In the case of Trade (which alternately has been a division within the Ministry for Economic Affairs and Finance and a Ministry in its own right), the friction with the Foreign Office has been particularly relevant. The reason for the disagreements, which in many cases result in a physical separation of Spanish embassies and offices of trade attachés abroad, has a bureaucratic component caused by the traditional rivalry between diplomatic services and official business experts. These business experts have worked through semi-autonomous institutions, whose sole function was to promote Spanish exports, and have asserted their vertical appointment by refusing to be hierarchically coordinated by the ambassadors. See A. Moreno Juste, ‘La administratión exterior en la transitión de la política exterior española (1975–1986)’ (The foreign policy administration during the transition of Spanish foreign policy (1975–1986)). In A. Soto et al. (eds), Historia de la transitión y consolidación democrática en Espana (Volumen II) (The history of Spain’s democratic transition and consolidation), (Madrid: UNED and UAM, 1995), pp. 239–40.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. I. Torreblanca, ‘Overlapping Games and Cross-Cutting Coalitions in the European Union’, West European Politics, 21 (2) (1998), 134–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    C. Arenal, La política exterior de España hacia Iberoamérica (Spain’s foreign policy towards Latin America) (Madrid: Editorial Complutense, 1994), p. 97, note 73.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Roldán, Las relaciones exteriores de España (The foreign relations of Spain) (Madrid: Dykinson, 2001), p. 29.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    R. Mesa, ‘El proceso de toma de decisiones en política exterior’ (The decision-making process in foreign policy), Documentatión Administrativa, 205 (1985) 143–63, p. 158.Google Scholar
  10. 18.
    L. Yáíez-Barnuevo, ‘La participación de España en la cooperación internacional para el desarrollo’ (Spain’s participation in international co-operation for development), Documentación Administrativa 227 (1991) 17–40, p. 17Google Scholar
  11. 18.
    F. Valenzuela, ‘La Agencia Española de Cooperación Internacional. Una experiencia de gestión’ (The Spanish Agency for International Cooperation. A management experience), Documentaci6n Administrativa 227 (1991), 41–57, p. 41.Google Scholar
  12. 19.
    R. L. Rosenberg, Spain and Central America. Democracy and Foreign Policy (New York: Greenwood Press, 1992), p. 149.Google Scholar
  13. 22.
    J. A. Gimeno, ‘El Instituto Cervantes: el diseño de un nuevo ente’ (The Cervantes Institute: the design of a new entity), Documentación Administrativa 227 (1991) 127–140.Google Scholar
  14. 31.
    For a more detailed discussion, see I. Molina, ‘Spain’, In: Kassim, H., Peters, G. and Wright, V. (eds), The Co-ordination of EU Policy Making: The Domestic Level (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  15. 35.
    J. Salas, and A. Betancor, ‘La incidencia organizativa de la integración europea en la administratión española’ (The organisational influence of European integration in the Spanish administration), Revista de Administración Pública, 125 (1991), p. 500, note 4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ignacio Molina
  • Fernando Rodrigo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations