Four Years’ Experience in the Diagnosis of Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Infants Detected in Three Spanish Newborn Screening Centers
Identification of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is possible in the expanded newborn screening (NBS) due to the increase in tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1) and in the C14:1/C2, C14:1/C16, C14:1/C12:1 ratios detected in dried blood spots. Nevertheless, different confirmatory tests must be performed to confirm the final diagnosis. We have revised the NBS results and the results of the confirmatory tests (plasma acylcarnitine profiles, molecular findings, and lymphocytes VLCAD activity) for 36 cases detected in three Spanish NBS centers during 4 years, correlating these with the clinical outcome and treatment. Our aim was to distinguish unambiguously true cases from disease carriers in order to obtain useful diagnostic information for clinicians that can be applied in the follow-up of neonates identified by NBS.
Increases in C14:1 and of the different ratios, the presence of two pathogenic mutations, and deficient enzyme activity in lymphocytes (<12% of the intra-assay control) identified 12 true-positive cases. These cases were given nutritional therapy and all of them are asymptomatic, except one. Seventeen individuals were considered disease carriers based on the mild increase in plasma C14:1, in conjunction with the presence of only one mutation and/or intermediate residual activity (18–57%). In addition, seven cases were classified as false positives, with normal biochemical parameters and no mutations in the exonic region of ACADVL. All these carriers and the false positive cases remained asymptomatic. The combined evaluation of the acylcarnitine profiles, genetic results, and residual enzyme activities have proven useful to definitively classify individuals with suspected VLCAD deficiency into true-positive cases and carriers, and to decide which cases need treatment.
KeywordsACADVL mutations Newborn screening Very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency VLCAD enzyme activity
The authors would like to thank the families involved in this study for giving their consent. This work was funded by a grant from the Fundación Isabel Gemio. The authors confirm independence from the sponsors; the content of the article has not been influenced by the sponsors.
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