Urine Beta2-Microglobulin Is an Early Marker of Renal Involvement in LPI

  • Mari KärkiEmail author
  • Kirsti Näntö-Salonen
  • Harri Niinikoski
  • Laura M. Tanner
Research Report
Part of the JIMD Reports book series (JIMD, volume 25)


Objective: Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder affecting the transport of cationic amino acids. It has previously been shown that approximately one third of the Finnish LPI patients have impaired renal function. The aim of this study was to analyse in detail urine beta2-microglobulin values, renal dysfunction, oral l-citrulline doses and plasma citrulline concentrations in Finnish LPI patients.

Methods and results: Of the 41 Finnish LPI patients, 56% had proteinuria and 53% hematuria. Mean plasma creatinine concentration was elevated in 48%, serum cystatin C in 62%, and urine beta2-microglobulin in 90% of the patients. Seventeen per cent of the patients developed ESRD, and five of them received a kidney transplant.

l-citrulline doses and fasting plasma citrulline concentrations were similar in adult LPI patients with decreased and normal GFR (mean ± SD 79.5 ± 29.2 vs. 82.4 ± 21.9 mg/kg/day, P = 0.619, and 80.3 ± 20.1 vs. 64.8 ± 23.0 μmol/l, P = 0.362, respectively).

Conclusions: Urine beta2-microglobulin is a sensitive early marker of renal involvement, and it should be monitored regularly in LPI patients. Weight-based oral l-citrulline doses and plasma citrulline concentrations were not associated with renal function. LPI patients with ESRD were successfully treated with dialysis and kidney transplantation.


Glomerular Filtration Rate Serum Cystatin Normal Glomerular Filtration Rate Lysinuric Protein Intolerance Urine Dipstick Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation


End-stage renal disease


Glomerular filtration rate


Lysinuric protein intolerance


Modification of diet in renal disease


Solute carrier family 7, member 7


y+l amino acid transporter-1



We thank Tero Vahlberg for help in the analysis of the l-citrulline doses.


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Copyright information

© SSIEM and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mari Kärki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kirsti Näntö-Salonen
    • 1
  • Harri Niinikoski
    • 2
  • Laura M. Tanner
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  2. 2.Department of Pediatrics and PhysiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland
  3. 3.Department of Medical Biochemistry and GeneticsUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

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