Advertisement

Urinary and Sexual Involvement in IBD

  • Luigi Zorcolo
  • Giuseppe Casula

Conclusions

Urologic and sexual problems in patients with IBD are not rare and can be either the consequence of the evolution of the inflammatory process or the consequence of its treatment. Males and patients with Crohn’s disease are the most exposed.

Early urinary symptoms are often missed both by the patient and doctor because they are not specific and are overshadowed by the more severe intestinal manifestations. When they become evident, renal damage may have already occurred. For these reasons people with IBD should be periodically examined with simple exams such as urinalysis, serum creatinine level and abdominal ultrasound in order to recognise these manifestation at an early stage and carry out the appropriate treatment. Some conditions can be prevented or treated with diet or medicines, while others, like fistulas and obstructive uropathy per se indicate an advanced intestinal disease which usually requires surgery.

Sexual alterations are quite troublesome, especially because of the young age of these patients. Again, it is very important that doctors dealing with IBD are aware of the possibility of sexual problems and investigate them appropriately. Often, counselling with a specialist is sufficient for ameliorating the situation; as psychological factors may play a major role in causing dysfunction, the patient should be reassured that a correct treatment of the inflammatory disease usually results in significant improvement not only in general conditions but also in the social and sexual life.

On the other hand, patients should be informed that surgical treatment, especially in the case of rectal resection, carries the potential risk of urinary and sexual complications that in a minority of cases are permanent and may significantly affect the quality of life.

Keywords

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Ulcerative Colitis Sexual Dysfunction Total Mesorectal Excision Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Greenstein AJ, Janowitz HD, Sachar DB (1976) The extraintestinal complications of Crohn’s disease in ulcerative colitis: a study of 700 patients. Medicine 55:401–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kyle J (1980) Urinary complications of Crohn’s disease. World J Surg 4:153–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shield DE, Lytton B, Weiss RM et al (1976) Urologic complications of inflammatory bowel disease. J Urol 115:701–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Oefelein MG (2003) Urologic manifestations of nonurologic diseases gastrointestinal disorders. Urol Clin North Am 30:63–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ben-Ami H, Ginesin Y, Behar DM et al (2002) Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract complications in Crohn’s disease: an experience over 15 years. Can J Gastroenterol 16:225–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sato S, Sasaki I, Naito H et al (1999) Management of urinary complications in Crohn’s disease. Surg Today 29(8):713–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hyams JA, Weinberg SR, Alley JL (1943) Chronic ileitis with concomitant ureteritis: case report. AM J Surg 61:117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Erwin-Toth P (2001) Sexual adjustments and body image. In: Bayless TM, Hanauer SB (eds) Advanced Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Decker, Hamilton, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moody G, Probert CS, Srivastava EM et al (1992) Sexual dysfunction amongst women with Crohn’s disease: a hidden problem. Digestion 52:179–183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mc Leod RS, Churchill DN (1992) Urolithiasis complicatine inflammatory bowel disease. J Urol 148:974–978Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Caudarella R, Rizzoli E, Pironi L et al (1993) Renal stones in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Scanning Microsc 7:371–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nightingale JM (1995) The short-bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 7:514–520PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gelzayd EA, Breuer RI, Kirsner JB (1968) Nephrolithiasis in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Dig Dis 13:1027–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smith LH, Fromm H, Hofmann AF (1972) Acquired hyperoxaluria, nephrolithiasis, and intestinal disease: description of a syndrome. N Engl J Med 286:1371–1375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chadwick VS Modha K, Dowling RH (1973) Mechanism for hyperoxaluria in patients with ileal dysfunction. New Eng J Med 289:172–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clarke AM, McKenzie RG (1969) Ileostomy and the risk of urinary uric acid stones. Lancet 2:395–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reisner GS, Wilansky DL, Schneiderman C (1973) Uric acid lithiasis in the ileostomy patient. Br J Urol 45:340–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Casula G (1992) Urologic manifestations in Crohn’s disease. Chir Gastroent 26:103–108Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Banner MP (1987) Genitourinary complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Radiol Clin North Am 25:199–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sitrin MD, Rosenberg H, Chawla K (1980) Nutritional and metabolic complications in patients with Crohn’s disease and ileal resection. Gastroenterology 78:1069–1079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fukushima T, Matsuda I (1982) Clinical and urinary characteristics of urolithiasis in ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 77:238–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kirks DR (1979) John Caffey Award: Lithiasis due to interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. Am J Roentgenol 133:383–88Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Allison MJ, Cook HM, Milne DB et al (1986) Oxalate degradation by gastrointestinal bacteria from humans. J Nutr 116:455–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Argenzio RA, Liacos JA, Allison MJ (1988) Intestinal oxalate-degrading bacteria reduce oxalate absorption and toxicity in guinea pigs. J Nutr 118:787–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kumar R, Ghoshal UC, Singh G et al (2004) Infrequency of colonization with Oxalobacter formigenes in inflammatory bowel disease: possible role in renal stone formation. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19:1403–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McConnell N, Campbell S, Gillanders I et al (2002) Risk factors for developing renal stones in inflammatory bowel disease. BJU Int 89:835–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Manganiotis AN, Banner MP, Malkowicz SB (2001) Urologic complications of Crohn’s disease. Surg Clin North Am 81:197–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sakhaee K, Nicar M, Hill K (1983) Contrasting effects of potassium citrate and sodium citrate therapies on urinary chemistries and crystallization of stone-forming salts. Kidney Int 24:348–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pak CY, Waters O, Arnold L et al (1977) Mechanism of calcium urolithiasis among patients with hyperuricosuria. J Clin Invest 59:426–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pardi DS, Tremaine WJ, Sandborn WJ, McCarthy JT (1998) Renal and urologic complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Surg 93:504–514Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barilla DE, Notz C, Kennedy D et al (1978) Renal oxalate excretion following oral oxalate loads in patients with ileal disease and with renal and absorptive hypercalciurias: effect of calcium and magnesium. Am J Med 64:579–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shovron PJ (1977) Amyloidosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Dig Dis 22:209–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Nannan Panday AK et al (1992) Amyloidosis and inflammatory bowel disease: a 50 year experience with 25 patients. Medicine 71:261–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mir-Madjlessi SH, Brown CH, Hawk WA (1972) Amyloidosis associated with Crohn’s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 58:563–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fausa O, Nygaard K, Elgjo K (1977) Amyloidosis in Crohn’s disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 12:657–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lowdel CP, Shousha S, Parkins RA (1986) The incidence of amyloidosis complicating inflammatory bowel disease. Dis Colon Rectum 29:351–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Werther JL, Schapira A, Rubinstein O et al (1960) Amyloidosis in regional enteritis. Am J Med 29:416–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mandelstam P, Simmons DE, Mitchell BH (1989) Regression of amyloid in Crohn’s disease after bowel resection: a 19 year follow-up. J Clin Gastroenterol 11:324–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gitkind MJ, Wright SC (1990) Amyloidosis complicating inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 35:906–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ravid M, Shapira J, Kedar I, Feigl D (1979) Regression of amyloidosis secondary to granulomatous ileitis following surgical resection and colchicine administration. Acta Hepatogatroenterol 26:513–515Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Meyers S, Janowitz HD, Gumaste VV et al (1988) Colchicine therapy of the renal amyloidosis of ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 94:1503–1507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Efstratiadis G, Mainas A, Leontsini M (1996) Renal amyloidosis complicating Crohn’s disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 22:308–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steinhoff J, Schulz E, Herbst EW et al (1988) Therapy of amyloid nephrosis due to Crohn’s disease: plasmapheresis plus azathioprine? Wien Med Wochenschr 138:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lovat LB, Madhoo S, Pepys MB, Hawkins PN (1997) Long-term survival in systemic amyloid A amyloidosis complicating Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 112:1362–1365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stokke KT, Teisberg PA, Myhre E (1976) Nephrotic syndrome in ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 11:571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wilcox GM, Aretz HT, Roy MA et al (1990) Glomerulonephritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 98:786–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Thomas DM, Nicholls AJ, Feest TG (1990) Ulcerative colitis and glomerulo nephritis: is there an association? Nephrol Dial Transplant 5:628–629Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Moayyedi P, Fletcher S, Harnden P et al (1995) Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis associated with ulcerative colitis: case report of two patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 10:1923–1924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Presti ME, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Vogler CA et al (1997) Sclerosing cholangitis, inflammatory bowel disease and glomerulonephritis. Dig Dis Sci 42:813–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ridder, RM, Kreth HW, Kiss E et al (2005) Membranous nephropathy associated with familial chronic ulcerative colitis in a 12-year-old girl. Pediatr Nephrol 20:1349–1351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Diaz Rodriguez C, Granja E, Vasquez Martul et al (2004) Association between membranous glomerulonephritis and Crohn’s disease. Nefrologia 24(4):368–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ashman N, Sheaff M, Raftery MJ (2003) Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis associated with ulcerative colitis: a 6-year follow-up of 2 cases. Clin Nephrol 60(2):146–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fiasse R, Lurhuma AZ, Cambiaso CL (1978) Circulating immune complexes and disease activity in Crohn’s disease. Gut 19:611–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Trimarchi HM, Iotti A, Iotti R et al (2001) Immunoglobulin A nephropathy and ulcerative colitis: a focus on their pathogenesis. Am J Nephrol 21(5):400–405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Schofield PM, Williams PS (1984) Proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with Crohn’s disease. BMJ 289:1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Glassman M, Kaplan M, Spivak W (1986) Immunecomplex glomerulonephritis in Crohn’s disease. J Ped Gastroenterol Nutr 5:966–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Molina-Perez, Gonzalez-Reimers E, Santolaria-Fernandez F et al (1995) Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Dis Colon Rectum 38:1006–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Greenstein AJ, Kark AE, Dreiling DA (1974) Crohn’s disease of the colon: fistula in Crohn’s disease of the colon, classification, presenting features and management in 63 patients. Am J Gastroenterol 62:419–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Talamini MA, Broe PJ, Cameron JL (1982) Urinary fistulas in Crohn’s disease. Surg Gyn Ob 154:553–556Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    McNamara MJ, Fazio VW, Lavery IC et al (1990) Surgical treatment of enterovesical fistula in Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 33:271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gruner JS, Sehon JK, Johnson LW (2002) Diagnosis and management of enterovesical fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease. Am Surg 68:714–719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chebli JM, Gaburri PD, Pinto JR (2004) Enterovesical fistula in Crohn’s disease. Lancet 364:68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Tzakis A et al (1984) Course of enterovesical fistulas in Crohn’s disease. Am J Surg 147:788–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rankin GB (1990) Extraintestinal and systemic manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease. Med Clin North Am 74:39–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Solem CA, Loftus EV, Tremaine WJ et al (2002) Fistulas to the urinary system in Crohn’s disease: clinical features and outcome. Am J Gastroenterol 97:2300–2305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Margolin ML, Korelitz BI (1989) Management of bladder fistulas in Crohn’s disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 11:399–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Karamchandani MC, West CF (1984) Vesicoenteric fistulas. Am J Surg 147:681–683PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Present DH (2002) Urinary tract fistulas in Crohn’s disease: surgery versus medical therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 97:2165–2167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sou S, Yao T, Matsui T, Takemura S (1999) Preoperative detection of occult enterovesical fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease: efficacy of oral or rectal administration of indocyanine green solution. Dis Colon Rectum 42:266–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Goldman SM, Fishman EK, Gatewood OMB et al (1985) Computerized tomography in the diagnosis of the enterovesical fistulas. Am J Radiol 144:1229–1233Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Koelbel G, Schmiedl U, Majer MC et al (1989) Diagnosis of fistulas and sinus tracts in patients with Crohn’s disease: value of MR imaging. Am J Radiol 152:999–1003Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Schraut WH, Block GE (1984) Enterovesical fistula complicating Crohn’s ileocolitis. Am J Gastroenterol 79:186–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Daniels IR, Bekdash B, Scott HJ (2002) Diagnostic lessons learnt from a series of enterovesical fistulae. Colorectal Dis 4:459–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    King RM, Beart RW, McIlrath DC (1982) Colovesical and rectovesical fistulas. Arch Surg 117:680–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sarr MG, Fishman EK, Goldman SM et al (1987) Enterovesical fistulas. Surg Gyn Obs 164:41–48Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Gorcey S, Katzka I (1989) Is operation always necessary for enterovesical fistulas in Crohn’s disease? J Clin Gatroenterol 11:396–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wheeler SC, Marion JF, Present DH (2000) Medical therapy, not surgery, is the appropriate first line treatment for Crohn’s enterovesical fistula. Gastroenterology 114:A1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Levy C, Tremaine WJ (2002) Management of internal fistulas in Crohn’s disease. 8:106–111Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yamamoto T, Keighley MRB (2000) Enterovesical fistulas complicating Crohn’s disease: clinicopathological features in management. Int J Colorectal Dis 15:211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Present DH, Rutgeerts P, Targan S et al (1999) Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 340:1398–1405PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Parsi MA, Lashner BA, Achkar JP et al (2004) Type of fistula determines response to infliximab in patients with fistulous Crohn’s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 99:445–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sands BE, Blank MA, Patel K, van Deventer SJ, ACCENT II Study (2004) Long-term treatment of rectovaginal fistulas in Crohn’s disease: response to infliximab in the ACCENT II Study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2:912–920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Present DH, Rabinowitz JG, Banks PA et al (1969) Obstructive hydronephrosis. A frequent but seldom recognized complication of granulomatous disease of the bowel. New Engl J Med 280:523–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Fleckenstein P, Knudsen L, Pedersen EB et al (1977) Obstructive uropathy in inflammatory bowel disease. Scand J Gastroenterol 12:519–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Siminovitch JMP, Fazio VW (1980) Ureteral obstruction secondary to Crohn’s disease: a need for ureterolysis? Am J Surg 139:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shofield PF, Staff WG, Moore T (1968) Ureteral involvement in regional ileitis (Crohn’s disease). J Urol 99:412–416Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Edwards FC, Truelove SC (1964) The course and prognosis of ulcerative colitis. III. Complications. Gut 5:1–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Block GE, Enker WE, Kirsner JB (1973) Significance and treatment of occult obstructive uropathy complicating Crohn’s disease. Ann Surg 178:323–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kent GG, McGowan GE, Hyams JS et al (1987) Hypertension associated with unilateral hydronephrosis as a complication of Crohn’s disease. J Pediatric Surg 22:1049–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hyams JS (1994) Extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease in children. J Ped Gastroenterol Nutr 19:7–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kjellstrand CM (1975) Side effects of steroids and their treatment. Transplant Proc 7:123–129Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Pearson DC, May GR, Fick GH et al (1995) Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in Crohn’s disease: a metanalysis. Ann Intern Med 122:132–142Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    de Jong DJ, Goullet M, Naber TH (2004) Side effects of azathioprine in patients with Crohn’s disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 16:207–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Goodman TA, Polisson RP (1994) Methotrexate: adverse reactions and major toxicity. Rheumat Dis Clin NA 20:513–528Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Falagas ME, Gorbach SL (1995) Clindamicin and metronidazole. Med Clin NA 79:845–867Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jewell DP, Lennard-Jones JE, and the Cyclosporine Study Group of Great Britain and Ireland (1994) Oral cyclosporine for chronic active Crohn’s disease: a multicentre controlled trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:499–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Stange EF, Modigliani R, Pena AS et al (1995) European trial of cyclosporine in chronic active Crohn’s disease: a 12-month study. Gastroenterology 109:774–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Feagan BG, McDonald JW, Rochon J et al (1994) Lowdose cyclosporine for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. N Engl J Med 330:1846–1851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Feutren G, Mihatsch MJ, for the international Kidney Biopsy Registry of Cyclosporine in Autoimmune Diseases (1992) Risk factors for cyclosporine-induced nephropathy in patients with autoimmune diseases. N Eng J Med 326:1654–1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sandborn WJ (1996) A review of immune modifier therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine, and methotrexate. Am J Gastroenterol 91:423–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    McDonald JW, Feagan BG, Jewell D et al (2005) Cyclosporine for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:CD000297Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Barbour VM, Williams PF (1990) Nephrotic sindrome associated with sulfasalazine. Br Med J 301:818Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Dwarakanath AD, Michael J, Allan RN (1992) Sulfasalazine induced renal failure. Gut 33:563–564Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Thuluvath PJ, Ninkovic M, Calam J (1994) Mesalazine induced interstitial nephritis. Gut 35:1493–1496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wilcox GM, Reynolds JR, Galvanek EG (1996) Nephrotoxicity associated with olsalazine. Am J Med 100:238–240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hanauer SB, Verst-Brasch C, Regali G (1997) Renal safety of long-term mesalamine therapy in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterology 112:A991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Elseviers MM, D’Haens G, Lerebours E et al (2004) Renal impairment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: association with aminosalicylate therapy? Clin Nephrol 61:83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mehta RP (1990) Acute interstitial nephritis due to 5-aminosalicylic acid. Can Med Assoc J 143:1031–1032Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Baumrucker GO, Shaw JW (1953) Urological complications following abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. Arch Surg 67:502–513Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Tank ES, Ernst CB, Woolson ST et al (1972) Urinary tract complications of anorectal surgery. Am J Surg 123:118–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hollabaugh RS Jr, Steiner MS, Sellers KD et al (2000) Neuroanatomy of the pelvis: implications for colonic and rectal resection. Dis Colon Rectum 43:1390–1397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fowler JW, Bremner DN, Moffat LE (1978) The incidence and consequences of damage to the parasympathetic nerve supply to the bladder after abdominoperineal resection of the rectum for carcinoma. Br J Urol 50:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Gerstenberg TC, Nielsen ML, Clausen S et al (1980) Bladder function after abdominoperineal resection of the rectum for anorectal cancer. Urodynamic investigation before and after operation in a consecutive series. Ann Surg 191:81–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Smith JJ (2000) Bladder dysfunction after colorectal surgery. Seminars in Colon & Rectal Surgery 3:136–140Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Enker WE, Havenga K, Polyak T et al (1997) Abdominoperineal resection via total mesorectal excision and autonomic nerve preservation for low rectal cancer. World J Surg 21:715–720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lindsey I, Guy RJ, Warren BF et al (2000) Anatomy of Denonvilliers’ fascia and pelvic nerves, impotence, and implications for the colorectal surgeon. Br J Surg 87:1288–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Nesbakken A, Nygaard K, Bull-Njaa T et al (2000) Bladder and sexual dysfunction after mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Br J Surg 87:206–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Havenga K, Enker WE (2002) Autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision. Surg Clin North Am 82:1009–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Slors FJ, van Zuijlen PP, van Dijk GJ (2000) Sexual and bladder dysfunction after total mesorectal excision for benign diseases. Scan J Gastroenterol 232:48–51Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Velanovich V (1992) Pharmacologic prevention and treatment of postoperative urinary retention. Infect Urol 3:87Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Goldman G, Kahn PJ, Kashtan HJ et al (1988) Prevention and treatment of urinary retention and infection after surgical treatment of the colon and rectum with alpha adrenergic blockers. Surg Gynecol Obstet 166:447–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Finkbeiner AE (1985) Is bethanechol chloride clinically effective in promoting bladder emptying? A literature review. J Urol 134:443–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Del Rio C, Sanchez-Santos R, Oreja V et al (2004) Long-term urinary dysfunction after rectal cancer surgery. Colorectal Dis 6:198–202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Graham JW, Goligher JC (1954) The management of accidental injuries and deliberate resections of the ureter during excision of the rectum. Br J Surg 42:151–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dowling RA, Corriere JN Jr., Sandler CM (1986) Iatrogenic ureteral injury. J Urol 135:912–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Bothwell WN, Bleicher RJ, Dent TL (1994) Prophylactic ureteral catheterization in colon surgery: a five-year review. Dis Colon Rectum 37:330–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Beahrs JR, Beahrs OH, Beahrs MM et al (1978) Urinary tract complications with rectal surgery. Ann Surg 187:542–548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lindsey I, George BD, Kettlewell MGW et al (2001) Impotence after mesorectal and close rectal dissection for inflammatory bowel disease. Dis Colon Rectum 44:831–835PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hamawy K, Smith JJ, Libertino JA (2000) Injuries of the distal ureter. Seminars in Colon Rectal Surgery 11:163–179Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Block GE, Hurst RD (1995) Complications of the surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. In: Kirsner JB, Shorter RG (eds) Inflammatory bowel disease, 4th edn. Williams, Baltimore, MD, pp 898–922Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Metcalf AM, Dozois RR, Kelly KA (1986) Sexual function in women after proctocolectomy. Ann Surg 204:624–627PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Damgaard B, Wettergreen A, Kirkegaard P (1995) Social and sexual function following ileal pouch-anal anasotomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 38:286–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Berndtsson I, Oresland T, Hulten L (2004) Sexuality in patients with ulcerative colitis before and after restorative proctocolectomy: a prospective study. Scand J Gastroenterol 39:374–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Gorgun E, Remzi FH, Montague DK et al (2005) Male sexual function improves after ileal pouch anal anastomosis. Colorectal Dis 7:545–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Gruner ON, Naas R, Fretheim B et al (1977) Marital status and sexual adjustment after colectomy: results in 178 patients operated on for ulcerative colitis. Scand J Gastroenterol 12:193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Weber AM, Ziegler C, Belinson JL et al (1995) Gynecologic history of women with inflammatory bowel disease. Obstet Gynecol 86:843–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Sjogren B, Poppen B (1995) Sexual life in women after colectomy-proctomucosectomy with S-pouch. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 74:51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ragni G, Bianchi Porro G, Ruspa M et al (1984). Abnormal semen quality and lower serum testosterone in men with inflammatory bowel disease treated for a long time with sulfasalazine. Andro 16:162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Riley SA, Lecarpentier J, Mani V (1987) Sulfasalazine induced seminal abnormalities: results of mesalazine substitution. Gut 28:1008–1012PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ireland A, Jewell DP (1989) Sulfasalazine-induced impotence: a beneficial resolution with olsalazine? J Clin Gastroenterol 11:711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sagar PM, Lewis W, Holdsworth PJ et al (1993) Quality of life after restorative proctocolectomy with a pelvic ileal reservoir compares favourably with that of patients with medically treated colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 36:584–592PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Watts JM, de Dombal FT, Goligher JC (1966) Early results of surgery for ulcerative colitis. Br J Surg 53:1005–1014PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Corman ML, Veidenheimer MC, Coller JA (1978) Impotence after proctectomy for inflammatory disease of the bowel. Dis Colon Rectum 21:418–419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Fazio VW, Fletcher J, Montague D (1980) Prospective study of the effect of resection of the rectum on male sexual function. World J Surg 4:149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bauer JJ, Gelernt IM, Salky B et al (1983) Sexual dysfunction following proctocolectomy for benign disease of the colon and rectum. Ann Surg 197:363–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Tiainen J, Matikainen M, Hiltunen KM (1999) Ileal Jpouch-anal anastomosis, sexual dysfunction, and fertility. Scand J Gastroenterol 34:185–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Dozois RR, Nelson H, Metcalf AM (1993) Sexual function after ileo-anal anastomosis. Ann Chir 47:1009–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Michelassi F, Stella M, Block GE (1993) Prospective assessment of functional results after ileal J pouchanal restorative proctocolectomy. Arch Surg 128:889–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sorcini A, Vereb MJ (2000) Sexual and reproductive complications after pelvic surgery. Seminars in Colon Rectal Surgery 11:141–147Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lee EC, Dowling BL (1972) Perimuscular excision of the rectum for Crohn’s disease. Br J Surg 59:29–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bauer JJ, Gelernt IM, Salk BA et al (1986) Proctectomy for inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Surg 151:157–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Little JA, Parks AG (1977) Intersphincteric excision of the rectum. Br J Surg 64:413–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Yeager ES, Van Heerden JA (1980) Sexual dysfunction following proctocolectomy and abdominoperineal resection. Ann Surg 191:169–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Maurer CA, Z’Graggen K, Renzulli P et al (2001) Total mesorectal excision preserves male genital function compared with conventional rectal cancer surgery. Br J Surg 88:1501–1505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Malloy TR, Wein AJ, Carpiniello VL (1986) Reliability of AMS 700 inflatable penile prothesis. Urology 27:385–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Benson GS (1996) Male sexual dysfunction—pitfalls, pills and prostheses. J Urol 156:1636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Cameron MC, Gillett WR (1985) The recovery of sperm, insemination and pregnancy in the treatment of infertility because of retrograde ejaculation. Fertil Steril 44:844–845PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Shangold GA, Cantor B, Schreiber JR (1980) Treatment of infertility due to retrograde ejaculates: a simple, cost-effective method. Fertil Steril 34:175–177Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Thomas AJ Jr (2004) Infertility. J Urol 172(3):829–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    van Duijvendijk P, Slors JF, Taat CW et al (2000) What is the benefit of preoperative sperm preservation for patients who undergo restorative proctocolectomy for benign diseases? Dis Colon Rectum 43:838–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Wikland M, Jansson I, Asztely M et al (1990) Gynecological problems related to anatomical changes after conventional proctocolectomy and ileostomy. Int J Colorectal Dis 5:49–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Sjodahl R, Nystrom P, Olaison G (1990) Surgical treatment of dorsocaudal dislocation of the vagina after excision of the rectum: the Kylberg operation. Dis Colon Rectum 33:762–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Oresland T, Palmblad S, Ellstrom M et al (1994) Gynecological and sexual function related to anatomical changes in the female pelvis after restorative proctocolectomy. Int J Colorectal Disease 9:77–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sprangers MA, Taal BG, Aaronson NK, et al (1995). Quality of life in colorectal cancer. Stoma vs. non-stoma patients. Dis Colon Rectum 38:361–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Nugent KP, Daniels P, Stewart B et al (1999) Quality of life in stoma patients. Dis Colon Rectum 42:1569–1574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi Zorcolo
    • 1
  • Giuseppe Casula
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General SurgeryUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly

Personalised recommendations