Skip to main content

Behavioural Genetics of the Serotonin Transporter

Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN,volume 12)

Abstract

The serotonin transporter is a key regulator of the bioavailability of serotonin and therefore any modulation in the expression or action of the transporter would be expected to have consequences on behaviour. The transporter has therefore become a target for pharmaceutical intervention in behavioural and mood disorders. The search for polymorphic variants in the transporter that would associate with neurological disorders has been extensive but has become focused on two domains which are both termed variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms. Both of these VNTRs are in non-coding DNA and therefore proposed to be mechanistically involved in a disorder through their ability to modulate transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation of the transporter. The most extensively studied is in the promoter and is a bi-allelic insertion/deletion found in the 5′ promoter region of the gene 1.2 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site. This VNTR, termed, 5-HTTLPR was initially identified as two variants containing either, 14 (short/deletion) or 16 (long/insertion) copies of a 22 bp repeat. A second widely studied VNTR found in the non-coding region of the transporter is located within intron 2 and comprises 9, 10 or 12 copies of a 16–17 bp repeat termed, STin2.9, STin2.10 and STin2.12, respectively. These VNTR polymorphisms have been associated with a range of behavioural and psychiatric disorders including depression, OCD, anxiety and schizophrenia, however often the lack of reproducibility in different cohorts has led to debate on the actual association of the polymorphisms with this extensive range of neurological conditions. Here we review these two polymorphic VNTRs in depth and relate that to pharmaceutical response, their ability to regulate differential transporter expression, their core involvement in gene-environment interaction and their genetic association with specific disorders.

Keywords

  • Mood disorders
  • Genetic polymorphism
  • Serotonin
  • Serotonin transporter
  • Variable number tandem repeat
  • Gene regulation
  • Monoaminergic signaling

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/7854_2011_186
  • Chapter length: 33 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-27859-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Akar T, Sayin A et al (2010) Investigation of serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) and intron 2 (variable number of tandem repeats) polymorphisms with suicidal behavior in a Turkish population. DNA Cell Biol 29(8):429–434

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alaerts M, Ceulemans S et al (2009) Detailed analysis of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) shows no association with bipolar disorder in the Northern Swedish population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150B(4):585–592

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ali FR, Vasiliou SA et al (2010a) Combinatorial interaction between two human serotonin transporter gene variable number tandem repeats and their regulation by CTCF. J Neurochem 112(1):296–306

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ali FR, Haddley K et al (2010b) Assessing the impact of genetic variation on transcriptional regulation in vitro. Methods Mol Biol 628:195–214

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Anguelova M, Benkelfat C et al (2003) A systematic review of association studies investigating genes coding for serotonin receptors and the serotonin transporter: II. Suicidal behavior. Mol Psychiatry 8(7):646–653

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Arango V, Underwood MD et al (2002) Serotonin brain circuits involved in major depression and suicide. Prog Brain Res 136:443–453

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Arango V, Huang YY et al (2003) Genetics of the serotonergic system in suicidal behavior. J Psychiatr Res 37(5):375–386

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Armbruster D, Mueller A et al (2009) Interaction effect of D4 dopamine receptor gene and serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism on the cortisol stress response. Behav Neurosci 123(6):1288–1295

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baca-Garcia E, Vaquero-Lorenzo C et al (2007) Association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and a variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31(2):416–420

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barr CS, Newman TK et al (2003) Serotonin transporter gene variation is associated with alcohol sensitivity in rhesus macaques exposed to early-life stress. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27(5):812–817

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Barr CS, Newman TK et al (2004) Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variation and rearing condition in alcohol preference and consumption in female primates. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61(11):1146–1152

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Battersby S, Ogilvie AD et al (1996) Structure of a variable number tandem repeat of the serotonin transporter gene and association with affective disorder. Psychiatr Genet 6(4):177–181

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bellivier F, Henry C et al (1998) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms in patients with unipolar or bipolar depression. Neurosci Lett 255(3):143–146

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bengel D, Greenberg BD et al (1999) Association of the serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mol Psychiatry 4(5):463–466

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bennett AJ, Lesch KP et al (2002) Early experience and serotonin transporter gene variation interact to influence primate CNS function. Mol Psychiatry 7(1):118–122

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bloch MH, Landeros-Weisenberger A et al (2008) Association of the serotonin transporter polymorphism and obsessive-compulsive disorder: systematic review. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147B(6):850–858

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bradley SL, Dodelzon K et al (2005) Relationship of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and haplotypes to mRNA transcription. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 136B(1):58–61

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bray NJ, Buckland PR et al (2003) Cis-acting variation in the expression of a high proportion of genes in human brain. Hum Genet 113(2):149–153

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera-Vera TM, Garcia F et al (2000) Neurochemical changes in brain serotonin neurons in immature and adult offspring prenatally exposed to cocaine. Brain Res 870(1–2):1–9

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Calapoglu M, Sahin-Calapoglu N et al (2011) Serotonin transporter bi- and triallelic genotypes and their relationship with anxiety and academic performance: a preliminary study. Neuropsychobiology 63(2):103–111

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carlezon WA, Thome J Jr et al (1998) Regulation of cocaine reward by CREB. Science 282(5397):2272–2275

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Caspi A, Sugden K et al (2003) Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 301(5631):386–389

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cervilla JA, Rivera M et al (2006) The 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype at the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) increases the risk for depression in a large cohort of primary care attendees: the PREDICT-gene study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141B(8):912–917

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cervilla JA, Molina E et al (2007) The risk for depression conferred by stressful life events is modified by variation at the serotonin transporter 5HTTLPR genotype: evidence from the Spanish PREDICT-Gene cohort. Mol Psychiatry 12(8):748–755

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Champoux M, Bennett A et al (2002) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism, differential early rearing, and behavior in rhesus monkey neonates. Mol Psychiatry 7(10):1058–1063

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cho HJ, Meira-Lima I et al (2005) Population-based and family-based studies on the serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mol Psychiatry 10(8):771–781

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Collier DA, Arranz MJ et al (1996a) The serotonin transporter is a potential susceptibility factor for bipolar affective disorder. Neuroreport 7(10):1675–1679

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Collier DA, Stober G et al (1996b) A novel functional polymorphism within the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene: possible role in susceptibility to affective disorders. Mol Psychiatry 1(6):453–460

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Conway CC, Hamman C et al (2010) Interaction of chronic stress with serotonin transporter and catechol-o-methyltransferase polymorphisms in predicting youth depression. Depression Anxiety 27(8):737–745

    Google Scholar 

  • Deary IJ, Battersby S et al (1999) Neuroticism and polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene. Psychol Med 29(3):735–739

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Deuschle M, Schredl M et al (2010) Association between a serotonin transporter length polymorphism and primary insomnia. Sleep 33(3):343–347

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dickel DE, Veenstra-VanderWeele J et al (2007) Association studies of serotonin system candidate genes in early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 61(3):322–329

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Du LS, Bakish D et al (2000) Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and personality traits. Psychiatr Genet 10(4):159–164

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dubertret C, Hanoun N et al (2005) Family-based association study of the 5-HT transporter gene and schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 8(1):87–92

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Esquivel UP, Haddley K et al (2011) Finding gene expression regulators implicated in major depression using formaldehyde assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE). Neuropsychopharmacology 21:S28–S29, Abstract

    Google Scholar 

  • Evans J, Battersby S et al (1997) Association of short alleles of a VNTR of the serotonin transporter gene with anxiety symptoms in patients presenting after deliberate self harm. Neuropharmacology 36(4–5):439–443

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Fang J, Yan WH et al (2011) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism in Chinese patients with poststroke depression a case-control study. Stroke 42(5):1461–1463

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Feinn R, Nellissery M et al (2005) Meta-analysis of the association of a functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism with alcohol dependence. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 133B(1):79–84

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fiskerstrand CE, Lovejoy EA et al (1999) An intronic polymorphic domain often associated with susceptibility to affective disorders has allele dependent differential enhancer activity in embryonic stem cells. FEBS Lett 458(2):171–174

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frisch A, Postilnick D et al (1999) Association of unipolar major depressive disorder with genes of the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. Mol Psychiatry 4(4):389–392

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frodl T, Meisenzahl EM et al (2004) Reduced hippocampal volumes associated with the long variant of the serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 61(2):177–183

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frodl T, Koutsouleris N et al (2008a) Reduced gray matter brain volumes are associated with variants of the serotonin transporter gene in major depression. Mol Psychiatry 13(12):1093–1101

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frodl T, Zill P et al (2008b) Reduced hippocampal volumes associated with the long variant of the tri- and diallelic serotonin transporter polymorphism in major depression. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Gene 147B(7):1003–1007

    Google Scholar 

  • Furlong RA, Ho L et al (1998) Analysis and meta-analysis of two serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms in bipolar and unipolar affective disorders. Am J Med Genet 81(1):58–63

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gaysina D, Zainullina A et al (2006) The serotonin transporter gene: polymorphism and haplotype analysis in Russian suicide attempters. Neuropsychobiology 54(1):70–74

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Geijer T, Frisch A et al (2000) Search for association between suicide attempt and serotonergic polymorphisms. Psychiatr Genet 10(1):19–26

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gillihan SJ, Rao H et al (2010) Serotonin transporter genotype modulates amygdala activity during mood regulation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 5(1):1–10

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glenn AL (2011) The other allele: exploring the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene as a potential risk factor for psychopathy: a review of the parallels in findings. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35(3):612–620

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grabe HJ, Spitzer C et al (2009) Serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter polymorphisms and the susceptibility to posttraumatic stress disorder in the general population. Am J Psychiatry 166(8):926–933

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graff-Guerrero A, De La Fuente-Sandoval C et al (2005) Frontal and limbic metabolic differences in subjects selected according to genetic variation of the SLC6A4 gene polymorphism. Neuroimage 25(4):1197–1204

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greenberg BD, Tolliver TJ et al (1999) Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter promoter region affects serotonin uptake in human blood platelets. Am J Med Gent 88(1):83–87

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Guindalini C, Howard M et al (2006) A dopamine transporter gene functional variant associated with cocaine abuse in a Brazilian sample. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 103(12):4552–4557

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gutierrez B, Arranz MJ et al (1998a) Serotonin transporter gene and risk for bipolar affective disorder: an association study in Spanish population. Biol Psychiatry 43(11):843–847

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gutierrez B, Pintor L et al (1998b) Variability in the serotonin transporter gene and increased risk for major depression with melancholia. Hum Genet 103(3):319–322

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Haddley K, Vasiliou AS et al (2008) Molecular genetics of monoamine transporters: relevance to brain disorders. Neurochem Res 33(4):652–667

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hall FS, Sora I et al (2004) Molecular mechanisms underlying the rewarding effects of cocaine. Ann NY Natl Acad Sci 1025:47–56

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ham BJ, Lee MS et al (2005) No association between the tryptophan hydroxylase gene polymorphism and major depressive disorders and antidepressant response in a Korean population. Psychiatr Genet 15:299–301

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hanna GL, Himle JA et al (1998) Serotonin transporter and seasonal variation in blood serotonin in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 18(2):102–111

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Mattay VS et al (2002) Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 297(5580):400–403

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Drabant EM et al (2006) Imaging genetics: perspectives from studies of genetically driven variation in serotonin function and corticolimbic affective processing. Biol Psychiatry 59(10):888–897

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hauser J, Leszczynska A et al (2003) Association analysis of the insertion/deletion polymorphism in serotonin transporter gene in patients with affective disorder. Eur Psychiatry 18(3):129–132

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Heils A, Teufel A et al (1995) Functional promoter and polyadenylation site mapping of the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene. J Neural Transm Gen Sect 102(3):247–254

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heils A, Teufel A et al (1996) Allelic variation of human serotonin transporter gene expression. J Neurochem 66(6):2621–2624

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heinz A, Jones DW et al (2000) A relationship between serotonin transporter genotype and in vivo protein expression and alcohol neurotoxicity. Biol Psychiatry 47(7):643–649

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heinz A, Braus DF et al (2005) Amygdala-prefrontal coupling depends on a genetic variation of the serotonin transporter. Nat Neurosci 8(1):20–21

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Heinz A, Smolka MN et al (2007) Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR): effects of neutral and undefined conditions on amygdala activation. Biol Psychiatry 61(8):1011–1014

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hiio K, Merenakk L et al (2011) Effects of serotonin transporter promoter and BDNF Val66Met genotype on personality traits in a population representative sample of adolescents. Psychiatr Genet 21(5):261–264

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hoehe MR, Wendel B et al (1998) Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to mood disorders. Am J Med Genet 81(1):1–3

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hranilovic D, Schwab SG et al (2000) Serotonin transporter gene and schizophrenia: evidence for association/linkage disequilibrium in families with affected siblings. Mol Psychiatry 5(1):91–95

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hranilovic D, Stefulj J et al (2003) Serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) and intron 2 (VNTR) polymorphisms in Croatian suicide victims. Biol Psychiatry 54(9):884–889

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hranilovic D, Stefulj J et al (2004) Serotonin transporter promoter and intron 2 polymorphisms: relationship between allelic variants and gene expression. Biol Psychiatry 55(11):1090–1094

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hu X, Oroszi G, Chun J et al (2005) An expanded evaluation of the relationship of four alleles to the level of response to alcohol and the alcoholism risk. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:8–16

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hu XZ, Rush AJ, Charney D et al (2007) Association between a functional serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism and citalopram treatment in adult outpatients with major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64(7):783–792

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Innis RB, Cunningham VJ et al (2007) Consensus nomenclature for in vivo imaging of reversibly binding radioligands. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27(9):1533–1539

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ishihara K, Oshimura M et al (2006) CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator is linked to epigenetic remodeling. Mol Cell 23(5):733–742

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ito K, Yoshida K et al (2002) A variable number of tandem repeats in the serotonin transporter gene does not affect the antidepressant response to fluvoxamine. Psychiatry Res 111:235–239

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobsen LK, Staley JK et al (2000) Elevated central serotonin transporter binding availability in acutely abstinent cocaine-dependent patients. Am J Psychiatry 157(7):1134–1140

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jeffreys AJ, Wilson V et al (1985) Hypervariable ‘minisatellite’ regions in human DNA. Nature 314(6006):67–73

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jernej B, Stefulj J et al (2004) Intronic polymorphism of tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin transporter: indication for combined effect in predisposition to suicide. J Neural Transm 111(6):733–738

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Joshi G, Pradhan S et al (2010) No direct association of serotonin transporter (STin2 VNTR) and receptor (HT 102T>C) gene variants in genetic susceptibility to migraine. Dis Markers 29(5):223–229

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser R, Tremblay PB et al (2001) Serotonin transporter polymorphisms: no association with response to antipsychotic treatment, but associations with the schizoparanoid and residual subtypes of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry 6(2):179–185

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser R, Muller-Oerlinghausen B et al (2002) Correlation between serotonin uptake in human blood platelets with the 44-bp polymorphism and the 17-bp variable number of tandem repeat of the serotonin transporter. Am J Med Genet 114(3):323–328

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kalbitzer J, Frokjaer VG et al (2009) The personality trait openness is related to cerebral 5-HTT levels. Neuroimage 45(2):280–285

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kalin NH, Shelton SE et al (2008) The serotonin transporter genotype is associated with intermediate brain phenotypes that depend on the context of eliciting stressor. Mol Psychiatry 13(11):1021–1027

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Katsuragi S, Kunugi H et al (1999) Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and anxiety-related traits. Biol Psychiatry 45(3):368–370

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Keers R, Aitchison KJ (2010) Gender differences in antidepressant drug response. Int Rev Psychiatry 22(5):485–500

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Keers R, Aitchison KJ (2011) Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response. Expert Rev Neurother 11(1):101–125

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Keers R, Uher R et al (2011) Interaction between serotonin transporter gene variants and life events predicts response to antidepressants in the GENDEP project. Pharmacogenomics J 11(2):138–145

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kendler KS, Kuhn JW et al (2005) The interaction of stressful life events and a serotonin transporter polymorphism in the prediction of episodes of major depression: a replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(5):529–535

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim DK, Lim SW et al (2000) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and antidepressant response. Neuroreport 11:215–219

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • King MC, Wilson AC (1975) Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188(4184):107–116

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kinnally EL, Capitanio JP et al (2010) Epigenetic regulation of serotonin transporter expression and behavior in infant rhesus macaques. Genes, Brain Behav 9(6):575–582

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kirov G, Rees M et al (1999) Bipolar disorder and the serotonin transporter gene: a family-based association study. Psychol Med 29(5):1249–1254

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kiyohara C, Yoshimasu K (2010) Association between major depressive disorder and a functional polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) transporter gene: a meta-analysis. Psychiatr Genet 20(2):49–58

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Klenova E, Scott AC et al (2004) YB-1 and CTCF differentially regulate the 5-HTT polymorphic intron 2 enhancer which predisposes to a variety of neurological disorders. J Neurosci 24(26):5966–5973

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Koenen KC, Aiello AE et al (2009) Modification of the association between serotonin transporter genotype and risk of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults by county-level social environment. Am J Epidemiol 169(6):704–711

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kohen R, Cain KC et al (2008) Association of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms with poststroke depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65(11):1296–1302

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Konneker TI, Crowley JJ et al (2010) No association of the serotonin transporter polymorphisms 5-HTTLPR and RS25531 with schizophrenia or neurocognition. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 153B(5):1115–1117

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kraft JB, Slager SL et al (2005) Sequence analysis of the serotonin transporter and associations with antidepressant response. Biol Psychiatry 58(5):374–381

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kreek MJ, Bart G et al (2005a) Pharmacogenetics and human molecular genetics of opiate and cocaine addictions and their treatments. Pharmacol Rev 57(1):1–26

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kreek MJ, Nielsen DA et al (2005b) Genetic influences on impulsivity, risk taking, stress responsivity and vulnerability to drug abuse and addiction. Nat Neurosci 8(11):1450–1457

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar A, Choi KH et al (2005) Chromatin remodeling is a key mechanism underlying cocaine-induced plasticity in striatum. Neuron 48(2):303–314

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kunugi H, Tatsumi M et al (1996) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and affective disorder. Lancet 347(9011):1340

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Landaas ET, Johansson S et al (2010) An international multicenter association study of the serotonin transporter gene in persistent ADHD. Genes Brain Behav 9(5):449–458

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lasky-Su JA, Faraone SV et al (2005) Meta-analysis of the association between two polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene and affective disorders. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 133B(1):110–115

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lazary J, Lazary A et al (2009) Promoter variants of the cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) in interaction with 5-HTTLPR affect the anxious phenotype. Am J Med Genet 150B(8):1118–1127

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lee Y, Lin PY (2010) Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and eating disorders: a meta-analytic study. Int J Eat Disord 43(6):498–504

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Balling U et al (1994) Organization of the human serotonin transporter gene. J Neural Transm Gen Sect 95(2):157–162

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Merschdorf U (2000) Impulsivity, aggression, and serotonin: a molecular psychobiological perspective. Behav Sci Law 18(5):581–604

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Bengel D et al (1996) Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science 274(5292):1527–1531

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Meyer J et al (1997) The 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) in evolutionary perspective: alternative biallelic variation in rhesus monkeys. Rapid communication. J Neural Transm 104(11–12):1259–1266

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Zeng Y et al (2003) Anxiety-related traits in mice with modified genes of the serotonergic pathway. Eur J Pharmacol 480(1–3):185–204

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Levine AA, Guan Z et al (2005) CREB-binding protein controls response to cocaine by acetylating histones at the fosB promoter in the mouse striatum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(52):19186–19191

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lim JE, Papp A et al (2006) Allelic expression of serotonin transporter (SERT) mRNA in human pons: lack of correlation with the polymorphism SERTLPR. Mol Psychiatry 11(7):649–662

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lin CW, Tang W et al (2009) Haplotype analysis confirms association of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene with schizophrenia in the Han Chinese population. Neurosci Lett 453(3):210–213

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Little KY, McLaughlin DP et al (1998) Cocaine, ethanol, and genotype effects on human midbrain serotonin transporter binding sites and mRNA levels. Am J Psychiatry 155(2):207–213

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu W, Gu N et al (1999) Tentative association of the serotonin transporter with schizophrenia and unipolar depression but not with bipolar disorder in Han Chinese. Pharmacogenetics 9(4):491–495

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lo H, Wang SZ et al (2003) Allelic variation in gene expression is common in the human genome. Genome Res 13(8):1855–1862

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lorenzi C, Marcone A et al (2010) Serotonin transporter and saitohin genes in risk of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar dementia: preliminary findings. Neurol Sci 31(6):741–749

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lotrich FE, Pollock BG (2004) Meta-analysis of serotonin transporter polymorphisms and affective disorders. Psychiatric Genet 14(3):121–129

    Google Scholar 

  • Lovejoy EA, Scott AC et al (2003) The serotonin transporter intronic VNTR enhancer correlated with a predisposition to affective disorders has distinct regulatory elements within the domain based on the primary DNA sequence of the repeat unit. Eur J Neurosci 17(2):417–420

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • MacKenzie A, Quinn J (1999) A serotonin transporter gene intron 2 polymorphic region, correlated with affective disorders, has allele-dependent differential enhancer-like properties in the mouse embryo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96(26):15251–15255

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Malhotra AK, Goldman D et al (1998) A functional serotonin transporter (5-HTT) polymorphism is associated with psychosis in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics. Mol Psychiatry 3(4):328–332

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mann JJ, Huang YY et al (2000) A serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and prefrontal cortical binding in major depression and suicide. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57(8):729–738

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mansour HE, Talkowski ME et al (2005) Serotonin gene polymorphisms and bipolar I disorder: focus on the serotonin transporter. Ann Med 37(8):590–602

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martin J, Cleak J et al (2007) Mapping regulatory variants for the serotonin transporter gene based on allelic expression imbalance. Mol Psychiatry 12(5):421–422

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martinez D, Slifstein MR et al (2009) Positron emission tomography imaging of the serotonin transporter and 5-HT1A receptor in alcohol dependence. Biol Psychiatry 65(2):175–180

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maze I, Covington JH 3rd et al (2010) Essential role of the histone methyltransferase G9a in cocaine-induced plasticity. Science 327(5962):213–216

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mazzanti CM, Lappalainen J et al (1998) Role of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism in anxiety-related traits. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55(10):936–940

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McHugh RK, Hofmann SJ et al (2010) The serotonin transporter gene and risk for alcohol dependence: a meta-analytic review. Drug Alcohol Depend 108(1–2):1–6

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin DP, Little KY et al (1996) Expression of serotonin transporter mRNA in human brainstem raphe nuclei. Neuropsychopharmacology 15(5):523–529

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meira-Lima I, Michelon L et al (2005) Allelic association analysis of the functional insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene in bipolar affective disorder. J Mol Med 27(2):219–224

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Melke J, Landen M et al (2001) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms are associated with anxiety-related personality traits in women. Am J Med Genet 106(1):458–463

    Google Scholar 

  • Mendlewicz J, Massat I et al (2004) Serotonin transporter 5HTTLPR polymorphism and affective disorders: no evidence of association in a large European multicenter study. Eur J Hum Genet 12(5):377–382

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Merenakk L, Maestu J et al (2011) Effects of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and α(2A)-adrenoceptor (C-1291G) genotypes on substance use in children and adolescents: a longitudinal study. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 215(1):13–22

    Google Scholar 

  • Middledorp CM, de Geus EJC et al (2007) Family based association analyses between the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and neuroticism, anxiety and depression. Behav Genet 37(2):294–301

    Google Scholar 

  • Mileva-Seitz V, Kennedy J et al (2011) Serotonin transporter allelic variation in mothers predicts maternal sensitivity, behavior and attitudes toward 6-month-old infants. Genes Brain Behav 10(3):325–333

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Min W, Li T et al (2009) Monoamine transporter gene polymorphisms affect susceptibility to depression and predict antidepressant response. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 205:409–417

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miyajima F, Quinn JP et al (2008) Additive effect of BDNF and REST polymorphisms is associated with improved general cognitive ability. Genes Brain Behav 7(7):714–719

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mortensen OV, Kristensen AS et al (1999a) Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a bovine serotonin transporter. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 71(1):120–126

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mortensen OV, Thomassen M et al (1999b) Functional analysis of a novel human serotonin transporter gene promoter in immortalized raphe cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 68(1–2):141–148

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mrazek DA, Rush AJ et al (2009) SLC6A4 variation and citalopram response. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 150B:341–351

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy DL, Li Q et al (2001) Genetic perspectives on the serotonin transporter. Brain Res Bull 56(5):487–494

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Myung W, Lim SW et al (2010) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and chronic illness of depression. J Korean Med Sci 25(12):1824–1827

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nakamura Y, Koyama K et al (1998) VNTR (variable number of tandem repeat) sequences as transcriptional, translational, or functional regulators. J Hum Genet 43(3):149–152

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nakamura M, Ueno S et al (2000) The human serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) shows ten novel allelic variants. Mol Psychiatry 5(1):32–38

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Naslund K, Saetre P et al (2005) Genome-wide prediction of human VNTRs. Genomics 85(1):24–35

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nobile M, Begni B et al (1999) Effects of serotonin transporter promoter genotype on platelet serotonin transporter functionality in depressed children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38(11):1396–1402

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ogilvie AD, Battersby S et al (1996) Polymorphism in serotonin transporter gene associated with susceptibility to major depression. Lancet 347(9003):731–733

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ogilvie AD, Russell MB et al (1998) Altered allelic distributions of the serotonin transporter gene in migraine without aura and migraine with aura. Cephalalgia 18(1):23–26

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ohara K, Suzuki Y et al (1999) A variable-number-tandem-repeat of the serotonin transporter gene and anxiety disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 23(1):55–65

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Olsson CA, Foley DL et al (2010) Prospects for epigenetic research within cohort studies of psychological disorder: a pilot investigation of a peripheral cell marker of epigenetic risk for depression. Biol Psychol 83(2):159–165

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ospina-Duque J, Duque C et al (2000) An association study of bipolar mood disorder (type I) with the 5-HTTLPR serotonin transporter polymorphism in a human population isolate from Colombia. Neurosci Lett 292(3):199–202

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pan JY, Ma P et al (2009) Association of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and major depressive disorder in Chinese Han population. Neural Regen Res 4(8):635–640

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Parsey RV, Hastings RS et al (2006a) Lower serotonin transporter binding potential in the human brain during major depressive episodes. Am J Psychiatry 163(1):52–58

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parsey RV, Hastings RS et al (2006b) Effect of a triallelic functional polymorphism of the serotonin-transporter-linked promoter region on expression of serotonin transporter in the human brain. Am J Psychiatry 163(1):48–51

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peters EJ, Slager SL et al (2004) Investigation of serotoninrelated genes in antidepressant response. Mol Psychiatry 9:879–889

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pinto E, Reggers J et al (2008) The short allele of the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism influences relapse in alcohol dependence. Alcohol Alcohol 43(4):398–400

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pirker W, Asenbaum S et al (2000) Imaging serotonin and dopamine transporters with 123I-beta-CIT SPECT: binding kinetics and effects of normal aging. J Nucl Med 41(1):36–44

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pluess M, Velders FP et al (2011) Serotonin transporter polymorphism moderates effects of prenatal maternal anxiety on infant negative emotionality. Biol Psychiatry 69(6):520–525

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Porcelli S, Drago A et al (2011) Pharmacogenetics of antidepressant response. J Psychiatry Neurosci 36(2):87–113

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Praschak-Rieder N, Kennedy J et al (2007) Novel 5-HTTLPR allele associates with higher serotonin transporter binding in putamen: a [(11)C] DASB positron emission tomography study. Biol Psychiatry 62(4):327–331

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Praschak-Rieder N, Willeit M et al (2008) Seasonal variation in human brain serotonin transporter binding. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65(9):1072–1078

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rao D, Jonsson EG et al (1998) Schizophrenia and the serotonin transporter gene. Psychiatr Genet 8(4):207–212

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rees M, Norton M et al (1997) Association studies of bipolar disorder at the human serotonin transporter gene (hSERT; 5HTT). Mol Psychiatry 2(5):398–402

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Reese J, Kraschewski A et al (2010) Haplotypes of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes are associated with antisocial personality disorder in alcoholics. Psychiatr Genet 20(4):140–152

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Reimold M, Smolka MN et al (2007) Midbrain serotonin transporter binding potential measured with [11C]DASB is affected by serotonin transporter genotype. J Neural Transm 114(5):635–639

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Renthal W, Maze I et al (2007) Histone deacetylase 5 epigenetically controls behavioral adaptations to chronic emotional stimuli. Neuron 56(3):517–529

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ressler KJ, Nemeroff CB (2000) Role of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders. Depression Anxiety 12(1):2–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Ressler KJ, Bradley B et al (2010) Polymorphisms in CRHR1 and the serotonin transporter loci: gene × gene × environment interactions on depressive symptoms. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 153B(3):812–824

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts J, Scott AC et al (2007) Differential regulation of the serotonin transporter gene by lithium is mediated by transcription factors, CCCTC binding protein and Y-box binding protein 1, through the polymorphic intron 2 variable number tandem repeat. J Neurosci 27(11):2793–2801

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ruhe HG, Booij J et al (2009) Serotonin transporter binding with [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 36(5):841–849

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sakai K, Nakamura M et al (2002) The silencer activity of the novel human serotonin transporter linked polymorphic regions. Neurosci Lett 327(1):13–16

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schloesser RJ, Manji HK et al (2009) Suppression of adult neurogenesis leads to an increased hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis response. Neuroreport 20(6):553–557

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Schurks M, Rist PM et al (2010a) 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and migraine: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cephalalgia 30(11):1296–1305

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schurks M, Rist PM et al (2010b) STin2 VNTR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene and migraine: pooled and meta-analyses. J Headache Pain 11(4):317–326

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Selvaraj S, Murthy NV et al (2011) Diminished brain 5-HT transporter binding in major depression: a positron emission tomography study with [11C]DASB. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 213(2–3):555–562

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Serretti A, Lilli R et al (2002) Serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and major psychoses. Mol Psychiatry 7(1):95–99

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Serretti A, Kato M et al (2007) Meta-analysis of serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) association with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor efficacy in depressed patients. Mol Psychiatry 12(3):247–257

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shah MP, Wang F et al (2009) Role of variation in the serotonin transporter protein gene (SLC6A4) in trait disturbances in the ventral anterior cingulate in bipolar disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 34(5):1301–1310

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shioe K, Ichimiya T et al (2003) No association between genotype of the promoter region of serotonin transporter gene and serotonin transporter binding in human brain measured by PET. Synapse 48(4):184–188

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smeraldi E, Serretti A et al (2006) Serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region: possible pharmacogenetic implications of rare variants. Psychiatr Genet 16:153–158

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Smits KM, Smits LJ et al (2004) Influence of SERTPR and STin2 in the serotonin transporter gene on the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in depression: a systematic review. Mol Psychiatry 9(5):433–441

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smits K, Smits L et al (2007) Serotonin transporter polymorphisms and the occurrence of adverse events during treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 22:137–143

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Soeby K, Larsen SA et al (2005) Serotonin transporter: evolution and impact of polymorphic transcriptional regulation. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 136B(1):53–57

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Stober G, Heils A et al (1996) Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and affective disorder. Lancet 347(9011):1340–1341

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Surguladze SA, Elkin A et al (2008) Genetic variation in the serotonin transporter modulates neural system-wide response to fearful faces. Genes Brain Behav 7(5):543–551

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor WD, Steffens DC et al (2005) Influence of serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphisms on hippocampal volumes in late-life depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(5):537–544

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor MJ, Sen S et al (2010) Antidepressant response and the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region. Biol Psychiatry 68(6):536–43

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tencomnao T, Wongpiyabovorn J (2010) An investigation of the relationship between serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism and psoriasis susceptibility in a Thai population. Genet Mol Res 9(4):2275–2282

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tibrewal P, Kumar HB et al (2010) Association of serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in a south Indian population. Indian J Med Res 132(6):690–695

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tsankova NM, Kumar A et al (2004) Histone modifications at gene promoter regions in rat hippocampus after acute and chronic electroconvulsive seizures. J Neurosci 24(24):5603–5610

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Uher R, McGuffin P (2008) The moderation by the serotonin transporter gene of environmental adversity in the aetiology of mental illness: review and methodological analysis. Mol Psychiatry 13(2):131–146

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Uhl GR, Hall FS et al (2002) Cocaine, reward, movement and monoamine transporters. Mol Psychiatry 7(1):21–26

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Van der Zwaluw CS, Engels RC et al (2010) A serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) predicts the development of adolescent alcohol use. Drug Alcohol Dependance 112(1–2):134–139

    Google Scholar 

  • Van Dyck CH, Malison RT et al (2004) Central serotonin transporter availability measured with [123I]beta-CIT SPECT in relation to serotonin transporter genotype. Am J Psychiatry 161(3):525–531

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Van Ijzendoorn MH, Caspers K et al (2010) Methylation matters: interaction between methylation density and serotonin transporter genotype predicts unresolved loss or trauma. Biol Psychiatry 68(5):405–407

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vasiliou SA, Ali FR et al (2011) The SLC6A4 VNTR genotype determines transcription factor binding and epigenetic variation of this gene in response to cocaine in vitro. Addict Biol 17(1):156–170

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wang XJ, Zhong SR et al (2011) Association of polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene promote with the susceptibility to alcohol dependence in Yunnan Han population. Yi Chuan 33(1):48–53

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wellman CL, Izquierdo A et al (2007) Impaired stress-coping and fear extinction and abnormal corticolimbic morphology in serotonin transporter knock-out mice. J Neurosci 27(3):684–691

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wendland JR, Martin BJ et al (2006) Simultaneous genotyping of four functional loci of human SLC6A4, with a reappraisal of 5-HTTLPR and rs25531. Mol Psychiatry 11:224–6

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wendland JR, Kruse MR et al (2007) A large case–control study of common functional SLC6A4 and BDNF variants in obsessive compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2543–2551

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wells TT, Beevers CG et al (2010) Serotonin transporter and BDNF genetic variants interact to predict cognitive reactivity in healthy adults. J Affect Disord 126(1–2):223–229

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Willeit M, Stastny J et al (2001) No evidence for in vivo regulation of midbrain serotonin transporter availability by serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism. Biol Psychiatry 50(1):8–12

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Xie P, Kranzler HR et al (2009) Interactive effect of stressful life events and the serotonin transporter 5-HTTLPR genotype on posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis in 2 independent populations. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66(11):1201–1209

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yan QS (2002) Reduced serotonin release and serotonin uptake sites in the rat nucleus accumbens and striatum after prenatal cocaine exposure. Brain Res 929(1):59–69

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang B, Chen RC et al (2007) A meta-analysis of association studies between the 10-repeat allele of a VNTR polymorphism in the 3′-UTR of dopamine transporter gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144B(4):541–550

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zaboli G, Joensson EG et al (2008) Haplotype analysis confirms association of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene with schizophrenia but not with major depression. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 147B(3):301–307

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zalsman G, Huang YY et al (2006) Association of a triallelic serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism with stressful life events and severity of depression. Am J Psychiatry 163(9):1588–1593

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Zamorano R, Suchindran S et al (2006) 3′-untranslated region of the type 2 bradykinin receptor is a potent regulator of gene expression. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 290(2):F456–F464

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to J. P. Quinn .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Haddley, K., Bubb, V.J., Breen, G., Parades-Esquivel, U.M., Quinn, J.P. (2011). Behavioural Genetics of the Serotonin Transporter. In: Cryan, J., Reif, A. (eds) Behavioral Neurogenetics. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, vol 12. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2011_186

Download citation