Skip to main content

Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of How Variability in Neurobiology Shapes Individual Differences in Behavior

Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN,volume 12)

Abstract

Research has begun to identify how variability in brain function contributes to individual differences in complex behavioral traits. Examining variability in molecular signaling pathways with emerging and established methodologies such as pharmacologic fMRI, multimodal PET/fMRI, and hormonal assays are beginning to provide a mechanistic understanding of how individual differences in brain function arise. Against this background, functional genetic polymorphisms are being utilized to understand the origins of variability in signaling pathways as well as to efficiently model how such emergent variability impacts behaviorally relevant brain function and health outcomes. This chapter provides an overview of a research strategy that integrates these complimentary levels of analysis; existing empirical data is used to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach in illuminating the mechanistic neurobiology of individual differences in complex behavioral traits. This chapter also discusses how such efforts can contribute to the identification of predictive risk markers that interact with unique environmental factors to precipitate psychopathology.

Keywords

  • Neurogenetics
  • Amygdala
  • Striatum
  • Threat
  • Reward
  • Aggression
  • Stress

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/7854_2011_182
  • Chapter length: 33 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-27859-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Abercrombie HC, Giese-Davis J, Sephton S, Epel ES, Turner-Cobb JM, Spiegel D (2004) Flattened cortisol rhythms in metastic breast cancer patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology 29:1082–1092

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Adkins-Regan E (2005) Hormones and animal social behavior. Princeton University Press, Princeton

    Google Scholar 

  • Alessi SM, Petry NM (2003) Pathological gambling severity is associated with impulsivity in a delay discounting procedure. Behav Process 64:345–354

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Amat J, Matus-Amat P, Watkins LR, Maier SF (1998) Escapable and inescapable stress differentially alter extracellular levels of 5-HT in the basolateral amygdala of the rat. Brain Res 812:113–120

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Amat J, Tamblyn JP, Paul ED, Bland ST, Amat P et al (2004) Microinjection of urocortin 2 into the dorsal raphe nucleus activates serotonergic neurons and increases extracellular serotonin in the basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience 129:509–519

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arai K, Nakagomi Y, Iketani M, Shimura Y, Amemiya S, Ohyama K, Shibasaki T (2003) Functional polymorphisms in the mineralocorticoid receptor and amirolide-sensitive sodium channel genes in a patient with sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism. Hum Genet 112:91–97

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bannon MJ, Michelhaugh SK, Wang J, Sacchetti P (2001) The human dopamine transporter gene: gene organization, transcriptional regulation, and potential involvement in neuropsychiatric disorders. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 11:449–455

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baron RA, Richardson D (1994) Human aggression. Plenum, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Bartholome B, Spies CM, Gaber T, Schuchmann S, Kunkel D et al (2004) Membrane glucocorticoid receptors (mGCR) are expressed in normal human peripheral blood mononuclea cells and up-regulated after in vitro stimulation and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. FASEB J 18:70–80

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Basavarajappa BS, Yalamanchili R, Cravatt BF, Cooper TB, Hungund BL (2006) Increased ethanol consumption and preference and decreased ethanol sensitivity in female FAAH knockout mice. Neuropharmacology 50:834–844

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Beaver JD, Lawrence AD, Passamonti L, Calder AJ (2008) Appetitive motivation predicts the neural response to facial signals of aggression. J Neurosci 28:2719–2725

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Belsky J, Jonassaint C, Pluess M, Stanton M, Brummett B, Williams R (2009) Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes? Mol Psychiatry 14:746–754

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Berridge KC, Robinson TE (2003) Parsing reward. Trends Neurosci 26:507–513

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bickel WK, Odum AL, Madden GJ (1999) Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146:447–454

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bigos KL, Pollock BG, Aizenstein H, Fisher PM, Bies RR, Hariri AR (2008) Acute 5-HT reuptake blockade potentiates human amygdala reactivity. Neuropsychopharmacology 33:3221–3225

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Binder (2009) The role of FKBP5, a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor in the pathogenesis and therapy of affective and anxiety disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(Suppl 1), S186–195

    Google Scholar 

  • Binder EB, Nemeroff CB (2010) The CRF system, stress, depression and anxiety-insights from human genetic studies. Mol Psychiatry 15:574–588

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bishop SJ, Duncan J, Lawrence AD (2004) State anxiety modulation of the amygdala response to unattended threat-related stimuli. J Neurosci 24:10364–10368

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Blair RJ (2010) Neuroimaging of psychopathy and antisocial behavior: a targeted review. Curr Psychiatry Rep 12:76–82

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Blednov YA, Cravatt BF, Boehm SL 2nd, Walker D, Harris RA (2007) Role of endocannabinoids in alcohol consumption and intoxication: studies of mice lacking fatty acid amide hydrolase. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1570–1582

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bogdan R, Perlis RH, Fagerness J, Pizzagalli DA (2010) The impact of mineralocorticoid receptor iso/val genotype (rs5522) and stress on reward learning. Genes Brain Behav 9:658–667

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bogdan R, Williamson DE, Hariri AR (in press) Mineralocorticoid receptor iso/val genotype (rs5522) moderates the association between priori childhood emotional neglect and amygdala reactivity. Am J Psychiatry

    Google Scholar 

  • Brady LS, Whitfield HJ, Fox RJ, Gold PW, Herkenham M (1991) Long-term antidepressant administration alters corticotropin-releasing hormone, tyrosine hydroxylase, and mineralocorticoid receptor gene expression in rat brain. Therapeutic implications. J Clin Invest 87:831–837

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brown GW, Harris TO (1978) Social origins of depression: a study of psychiatric disorder in women. Tavistock, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Buchanan TW, Driscoll D, Mowrer SM, Sollers JJ, Thayer JF et al (2010) Medial prefrontal cortex damage affects physiological and psychological stress responses differently in men and women. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:56–66

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Burghardt NS, Sullivan GM, McEwen BS, Gorman JM, LeDoux JE (2004) The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram increases fear after acute treatment but reduces fear with chronic treatment: a comparison with tianeptine. Biol Psychiatry 55:1171–1178

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Burghardt NS, Bush DEA, McEwen BS, LeDoux JE (2007) Acute SSRIs increase conditioned fear expression: blockade with a 5-HT2C receptor antagonist. Biol Psychiatry 62:1111–1118

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Burns HD, Van Laere K, Sanabria-Bohorquez S, Hamill TG, Bormans G et al (2007) [18F]MK-9470, a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for in vivo human PET brain imaging of the cannabinoid-1 receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9800–9805

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Calignano A, La Rana G, Giuffrida A, Piomelli D (1998) Control of pain initiation by endogenous cannabinoids. Nature 394:277–281

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cardinal RN, Winstanley CA, Robbins TW, Everitt BJ (2004) Limbic corticostriatal systems and delayed reinforcement. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1021:33–50

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Carré JM, Fisher PM, Manuck SB, Hariri AR (in press-a) Interaction between trait anxiety and trait anger predict predict amygdala reactivity to angry faces in men but not women. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci

    Google Scholar 

  • Carré JM, McCormick CM (2008) Aggressive behaviour and change in salivary testosterone concentrations predict willingness to engage in a competitive task. Horm Beh 54:403–409

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carré JM, Murphy KR, Hariri AR (in press-b) What lies beneath the face of aggression. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci

    Google Scholar 

  • Carré JM, Putnam SK, McCormick CM (2009) Testosterone responses to competition predict future aggressive behaviour at a cost to reward in men. Psychoneuroendocrinology 343:561–570

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Carré JM, Gilchrist JG, Morrissey MD, McCormick CM (2010) Motivational and situations factors and the relationship between testosterone dynamics and human aggression during competition. Biol Psychol 84:346–353

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Caspi A, Moffitt TE (2006) Gene-environment interactions in psychiatry: joining forces with neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:583–590

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chakrabarti B, Kent L, Suckling J, Bullmore E, Baron-Cohen S (2006) Variations in the human cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene modulate striatal responses to happy faces. Eur J Neurosci 23:1944–1948

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chamberlain NL, Driver ED, Miesfeld RL (1994) The length and location of CAG trinucleotide repeats in the androgen receptor N-terminal dsomain affect transactivation function. Nucleic Acids Res 22:3181–3186

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chan SC, Raine A, Lee TM (2010) Attentional bias toward negative affective stimuli and reactive aggression in male batterers. Psychiatry Res 176:246–249

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cheon KA, Ryu YH, Kim JW, Cho DY (2005) The homozygosity for 10-repeat allele at dopamine transporter gene and dopamine transporter density in Korean children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: relating to treatment response to methylphenidate. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 15:95–101

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chiang KP, Gerber AL, Sipe JC, Cravatt BF (2004) Reduced cellular expression and activity of the P129T mutant of human fatty acid amide hydrolase: evidence for a link between defects in the endocannabinoid system and problem drug use. Hum Mol Genet 13:2113–2119

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Choong CS, Wilson EM (1998) Trinucleotide repeats in the human androgen receptor: a molecular basis for disease. J Mol Endocrinol 21:235–257

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Coccaro EF, McCloskey MS, Fitzgerald DA, Phan KL (2007) Amygdala and orbitofrontal reactivity to social threat in individuals with impulsive aggression. Biol Psychiatry 62:168–178

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Miller GE (2007) Psychological stress and disease. JAMA 298:1685–1687

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cooney RE, Atlas LY, Joormann J, Eugene F, Gotlib IH (2006) Amygdala activation in the processing of neutral faces in social anxiety disorder: is neutral really neutral? Psychiatry Res 148:55–59

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cowen PJ, Power AC, Ware CJ, Anderson IM (1994) 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity in major depression.A neuroendocrine study with buspirone. Br J Psychiatry 164:372–379

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cravatt BF, Giang DK, Mayfield SP, Boger DL, Lerner RA, Gilula NB (1996) Molecular characterization of an enzyme that degrades neuromodulatory fatty-acid amides. Nature 384:83–87

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Czesak M, Lemonde S, Peterson EA, Rogaeva A, Albert PR (2006) Cell-specific repressor or enhancer activities of Deaf-1 at a serotonin 1A receptor gene polymorphism. J Neurosci 26:1864–1871

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • David SP, Murthy NV, Rabiner EA, Munafo MR, Johnstone EC et al (2005) A functional genetic variation of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter affects 5-HT1A receptor binding in humans. J Neurosci 25:2586–2590

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Davidson RJ, Putnam KM, Larson CL (2000) Dysfunction in the neural circuitry of emotion regulation—a possible prelude to violence. Science 289:591–594

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • de Wit H, Richards JB (2004) Dual determinants of drug use in humans: reward and impulsivity. Nebr Symp Motiv 50:19–55

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • de Kloet ER, Joëls M, Holsboer F (2005) Stress and the brain: from adaptation to disease. Nat Rev Neurosci 6:463–475

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • De Wit H, Flory JD, Acheson A, McLoskey M, Manuck SB (2007) IQ and nonplanning impulsivity are independently associated with delay discounting in middle-aged adults. Pers Indiv Differ 42:111–121

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Depue RA, Luciana M, Arbisi P, Collins P, Leon A (1994) Dopamine and the structure of personality: relation of agonist-induced dopamine activity to positive emotionality. J Pers Soc Psychol 67:485–498

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeRijk RH, Wüst S, Meijer OC, Zennaro MC, Federenko IS, Hellhammer DH, Giacchetti G, Vreugdenhil E, Zitman FG, de Kloet ER (2006) A common polymorphism in the mineralocorticoid receptor modulates stress responsiveness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91:5083–5089

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • DeRijk RH, van Leeuwen N, Klok MD, Zitman FG (2008) Corticosteroid receptor-gene variants: modulators of the stress-response and implications for mental health. Eur J Pharmacol 585:492–501

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Derntl B, Windischberger C, Robinson S, Kryspin-Exner I, Gur RC, Moser E, Habel U (2009) Amygdala activity to fear and anger in healthy young males is associated with testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:687–693

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Desarnaud F, Cadas H, Piomelli D (1995) Anandamide amidohydrolase activity in rat brain microsomes. J Biol Chem 270:6030–6035

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dickerson SS, Kemeny ME (2004) Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychol Bull 130:355–391

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dickie EW, Armony JL (2008) Amygdala responses to unattended fearful faces: Interaction between sex and trait anxiety. Psychiatry Res 162:51–57

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dodge KA, Coie JD (1987) Social-information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. J Pers Soc Psychol 53:1146–1158

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Etkin A, Klemenhagen KC, Dudman JT, Rogan MT, Hen R et al (2004) Individual differences in trait anxiety predict the response of the basolateral amygdala to unconsciously processed fearful faces. Neuron 44:1043–1055

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Evans KC, Wright CI, Wedig MM, Gold AL, Pollack MH, Rauch SL (2008) A functional MRI study of amygdala responses to angry schematic faces in social anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety 25:496–505

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fakra E, Hyde LW, Gorka A, Fisher PM, Munoz KE et al (2009) Effects of HTR1A C(-1019)G on amygdala reactivity and trait anxiety. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66:33–40

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fellay J, Shianna KV, Ge D, Colombo S, Ledergerber B et al (2007) A whole-genome association study of major determinants for host control of HIV-1. Science 317:944–947

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fisher PM, Meltzer CC, Ziolko SK, Price JC, Hariri AR (2006) Capacity for 5-HT1A-mediated autoregulation predicts amygdala reactivity. Nat Neurosci 9:1362–1363

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Flanagan JM, Gerber AL, Cadet JL, Beutler E, Sipe JC (2006) The fatty acid amide hydrolase 385 A/A (P129T) variant: haplotype analysis of an ancient missense mutation and validation of risk for drug addiction. Hum Genet 120:581–588

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Forbes EE, Brown SM, Kimak M, Ferrell RE, Manuck SB, Hariri AR (2009) Genetic variation in components of dopamine neurotransmission impacts ventral striatal reactivity associated with impulsivity. Mol Psychiatry 14:60–70

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Forster GL, Feng N, Watt MJ, Korzan WJ, Mouw NJ et al (2006) Corticotropin-releasing factor in the dorsal raphe elicits temporally distinct serotonergic responses in the limbic system in relation to fear behavior. Neuroscience 141:1047–1055

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fox HC, Wilker EH, Kreek MJ, Sinha R (2006) Reliability of salivary cortisol assessments in cocaine dependent individuals. J Psychopharmacol 20:650–655

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gass P, Reichardt HM, Strekalova T, Henn F, Tronche F (2001) Mice with targetted mutations of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors: models for depression and anxiety? Physiol Behav 73:811–825

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibbons JL, McHugh PR (1962) Plasma cortisol in depressive illness. J Psychiat Res 1:162–171

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson G, Goldstein DB (2007) Human genetics: the hidden text of genome-wide associations. Curr Biol 17:R929–R932

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Glahn DC, Lovallo WR, Fox PT (2007) Reduced amygdala activation in young adults at high risk of alcoholism: studies from the Oklahoma family health patterns project. Biol Psychiatry 61:1306–1309

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Green L, Myerson J (2004) A discounting framework for choice with delayed and probabilistic rewards. Psychol Bull 130:769–792

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Haas BW, Omura K, Constable RT, Canli T (2007) Emotional conflict and neuroticism: personality-dependent activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate. Behav Neurosci 121:249–256

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hansenne M, Pitchot W, Pinto E, Reggers J, Scantamburlo G et al (2002) 5-HT1A dysfunction in borderline personality disorder. Psychol Med 32:935–941

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR (2009) The neurobiology of individual differences in complex behavioral traits. Ann Rev Neurosci 32:225–247

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Holmes A (2006) Genetics of emotional regulation: the role of the serotonin transporter in neural function. Trends Cogn Sci 10:182–191

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Weinberger DR (2003) Imaging genomics. Br Med Bull 65:259–270

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Mattay VS, Tessitore A, Fera F, Smith WG, Weinberger DR (2002a) Dextroamphetamine modulates the response of the human amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 27:1036–1040

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Mattay VS, Tessitore A, Kolachana B, Fera F et al (2002b) Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 297:400–403

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Brown SM, Williamson DE, Flory JD, de Wit H, Manuck SB (2006a) Preference for immediate over delayed rewards is associated with magnitude of ventral striatal activity. J Neurosci 26:13213–13217

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Drabant EM, Weinberger DR (2006b) Imaging genetics: perspectives from studies of genetically driven variation in serotonin function and corticolimbic affective processing. Biol Psychiatry 59:888–897

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hariri AR, Gorka A, Hyde LW, Kimak M, Halder I et al (2009) Divergent effects of genetic variation in endocannabinoid signaling on human threat- and reward-related brain function. Biol Psychiatry 66:9–16

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Harmon-Jones E (2003) Anger and the behavioural approach system. Pers Ind Diff 35:995–1005

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heinz A, Goldman D, Jones DW, Palmour R, Hommer D et al (2000) Genotype influences in vivo dopamine transporter availability in human striatum. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:133–139

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hermans E, Ramsey M, van Honk J (2008) Exogenous testosterone enhances responsiveness to social threat in the neural circuitry of social aggression in humans. Biol Psychiatry 63:263–270

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hyde LW, Gorka A, Manuck SB, Hariri AR (2011) Perceived social support moderates the link between threat-related amygdala reactivity and trait anxiety. Neuropsychologia 49:651–656

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hyman SE, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ (2006) Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory. Annu Rev Neurosci 29:565–598

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jahn AL, Fox AS, Abercrombie HC, Shelton SE, Oakes TR et al (2010) Subgenual prefrontal cortex activity predicts individual differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity across different contexts. Biol Psychiatry 67:175–181

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Joëls M, Karst H, DeRijk R, de Kloet ER (2008) The coming out of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor. Trends Neurosci 31:1–7

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johnstone T, Somerville LH, Alexander AL, Oakes TR, Davidson RJ et al (2005) Stability of amygdala BOLD response to fearful faces over multiple scan sessions. Neuroimage 25:1112–1123

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kalivas PW, Volkow ND (2005) The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry 162:1403–1413

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karst H, Berger S, Turiault M, Tronche F, Schütz G, Joëls M (2006) Mineralocorticoid receptors are indispensable for nongenomic modulation of hippocampal glutamate transmission by corticosterone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:19204–19207

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kathuria S, Gaetani S, Fegley D, Valino F, Duranti A et al (2003) Modulation of anxiety through blockade of anandamide hydrolysis. Nat Med 9:76–81

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kelley AE (2004) Memory and addiction: shared neural circuitry and molecular mechanisms. Neuron 44:161–179

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kern S, Oakes TR, Stone CK, McAuliff EM, Kirschbaum C, Davidson RJ (2008) Glucose metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex are associated with HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. Psychoneuroendocrinology 33:517–529

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Killgore WD, Yurgelun-Todd DA (2005) Social anxiety predicts amygdala activation in adolescents viewing fearful faces. Neuroreport 16:1671–1675

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kirby KN, Petry NM, Bickel WK (1999) Heroin addicts have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than non-drug-using controls. J Exp Psychol Gen 128:78–87

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Knutson B, Rick S, Wimmer GE, Prelec D, Loewenstein G (2007) Neural predictors of purchases. Neuron 53:147–156

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kolber BJ, Muglia LJ (2009) Defining brain region-specific glucocorticoid action during stress by conditional gene disruption in mice. Brain Res 1293:85–90

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kudielka BM, Hellhammer DH, Wüst S (2009) Why do we respond so differently? Reviewing determinants of human salivary cortisol responses to challenge. Psychoneuroendocrinology 34:2–18

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kuningas M, de Rijk RH, Westendorp RG, Jolle J, Slagboom PE, van Heemst D (2007) Mental performance in old age dependent on cortisol and genetic variance in the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1295–1301

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • LeDoux JE (2000) Emotion circuits in the brain. Annu Rev Neurosci 23:155–184

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lee BT, Ham BJ (2008) Serotonergic genes and amygdala activity in response to negative affective facial stimuli in Korean women. Genes Brain Behav 7:899–905

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee TM, Chan SC, Raine A (2008) Strong limbic and weak frontal activation to aggressive stimuli in spouse abusers. Mol Psychiatry 13:655–656

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lemonde S, Turecki G, Bakish D, Du L, Hrdina PD et al (2003) Impaired repression at a 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor gene polymorphism associated with major depression and suicide. J Neurosci 23:8788–8799

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Gutknecht L (2004) Focus on The 5-HT1A receptor: emerging role of a gene regulatory variant in psychopathology and pharmacogenetics. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 7:381–385

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lettre G, Jackson AU, Gieger C, Schumacher FR, Berndt SI et al (2008) Identification of ten loci associated with height highlights new biological pathways in human growth. Nat Genet 40:584–591

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Link E, Parish S, Armitage J, Bowman L, Heath S et al (2008) SLCO1B1 variants and statin-induced myopathy—a genomewide study. N Engl J Med 359:789–799

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • LoVerme J, Gaetani S, Fu J, Oveisi F, Burton K, Piomelli D (2005) Regulation of food intake by oleoylethanolamide. Cell Mol Life Sci 62:708–716

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Madden GJ, Petry NM, Badger GJ, Bickel WK (1997) Impulsive and self-control choices in opioid-dependent patients and non-drug-using control participants: drug and monetary rewards. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 5:256–262

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maier SF, Watkins LR (2005) Stressor controllability and learned helplessness: the roles of the dorsal raphe nucleus, serotonin, and corticotropin-releasing factor. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:829–841

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maldonado R, Valverde O, Berrendero F (2006) Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction. Trends Neurosci 29:225–232

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Manuck SB (2010) The reaction norm in gene x environment interaction. Mol Psychiatry 14:746–754

    Google Scholar 

  • Manuck SB, Flory JD, McCaffery JM, Matthews KA, Mann JJ, Muldoon MF (1998) Aggression, impulsivity, and central nervous system serotonergic responsivity in a nonpatient sample. Neuropsychopharmacology 19:287–299

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Manuck SB, Flory JD, Muldoon MF, Ferrell RE (2003) A neurobiology of intertemporal choice. In: Loewenstein G, Read D, Baumeister RF (eds) Time and decision: economic and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice. Sage, New York, pp 139–172

    Google Scholar 

  • Manuck SB, Brown SM, Forbes EE, Hariri AR (2007) Temporal stability of individual differences in amygdala reactivity. Am J Psychiatry 164:1613–1614

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Manuck SB, Marsland AL, Flory JD, Gorka A, Ferrell RE, Hariri AR (2010) Salivary testosterone and a trinucleotide (CAG) length polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene predict amygdala reactivity in men. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:94–104

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Marques AH, Silverman MN, Sternberg EM (2009) Glucocorticoid dysregulationss and their clinical correlated: from receptors to therapeutics. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1179:1–18

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Márquez C, Nadal R, Armario A (2005) Responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to different novel environments is a consistent individual trait in adult male outbred rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology 30:179–188

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Martinez D, Gelernter J, Abi-Dargham A, van Dyck CH, Kegeles L et al (2001) The variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene is not associated with significant change in dopamine transporter phenotype in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 24:553–560

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mauchnik J, Schmahl C (2010) The latest neuroimaging findings in borderline personality disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 12:46–55

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McCarthy MI, Abecasis GR, Cardon LR, Goldstein DB, Little J et al (2008) Genome-wide association studies for complex traits: consensus, uncertainty and challenges. Nat Rev Genet 9:356–369

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McEwen BS, Gianaros PJ (2010) Central role of the brain in stress and adaptation: links to socioeconomic status, health, and disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1186:190–222

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McGowan PO, Sasaki A, D’Alessio AC, Gymov S, Labonté B et al (2009) Epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor in human brain associates with childhood abuse. Nat Neurosci 12:342–348

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mehta PH, Beer J (2010) Neural mechanisms of the testosterone-aggression relation: the role of the orbito-frontal cortex. J Cog Neuro 22:2357–2368

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meng ID, Manning BH, Martin WJ, Fields HL (1998) An analgesia circuit activated by cannabinoids. Nature 395:381–383

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Menon M, Jensen J, Vitcu I, Graff-Guerrero A, Crawley A et al (2007) Temporal difference modeling of the blood-oxygen level dependent response during aversive conditioning in humans: effects of dopaminergic modulation. Biol Psychiatry 62:765–772

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Meyer-Lindenberg A, Buckholtz JW, Kolachana B, Hariri AR, Pezawas L et al (2006) Neural mechanisms of genetic risk for impulsivity and violence in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:6269–6274

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Michelhaugh SK, Fiskerstrand C, Lovejoy E, Bannon MJ, Quinn JP (2001) The dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) variable number of tandem repeats domain enhances transcription in dopamine neurons. J Neurochem 79:1033–1038

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mill J, Asherson P, Browes C, D’Souza U, Craig I (2002) Expression of the dopamine transporter gene is regulated by the 3′ UTR VNTR: evidence from brain and lymphocytes using quantitative RT-PCR. Am J Med Genet 114:975–979

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mill J, Asherson P, Craig I, D’Souza UM (2005) Transient expression analysis of allelic variants of a VNTR in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1). BMC Genet 6:3

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mitra R, Ferguson D, Sapolsky RM (2009) Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression in basolateral amygdala reduces corticosterone secretion and anxiety. Biol Psychiatry 66:686–690

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Monroe SM (2008) Modern approaches to conceptualizing and measuring human life stress. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 4:33–52

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Moreira FA, Kaiser N, Monory K, Lutz B (2008) Reduced anxiety-like behaviour induced by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is mediated by CB1 receptors. Neuropharmacology 54:141–150

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Most SB, Chun MM, Johnson MR, Kiehl KA (2006) Attentional modulation of the amygdala varies with personality. Neuroimage 31:934–944

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Müller M, Holsboer F, Keck ME (2002) Genetic modification of corticosteroid receptor signaling: novel insights into pathophysiology and treatment strategies of human affective disorders. Neuropeptides 36:117–131

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Munafo MR, Brown SM, Hariri AR (2008) Serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) genotype and amygdala activation: a meta-analysis. Biol Psychiatry 63:852–857

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson RJ, Trainor BC (2007) Neural mechanisms of aggression. Nat Rev Neurosci 8:536–546

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • New AS, Hazlett EA, Buchsbaum MS, Goodman M, Mitelman SA, Newmark R et al (2007) Amygdala-prefrontal disconnection in borderline personality disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1629–1640

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Newman S (1999) The medial extended amygdala in male reproductive behavior. A node in the mammalian social behavior network. Ann N Y Acad Sci 877:242–257

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • O’Doherty JP (2004) Reward representations and reward-related learning in the human brain: insights from neuroimaging. Curr Opin Neurobiol 14:769–776

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Onaivi ES, Leonard CM, Ishiguro H, Zhang PW, Lin Z et al (2002) Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptor genetics. Prog Neurobiol 66:307–344

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Parsey RV, Oquendo MA, Ogden RT, Olvet DM, Simpson N et al (2006) Altered serotonin 1A binding in major depression: a [carbonyl-C-11]WAY100635 positron emission tomography study. Biol Psychiatry 59:106–111

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Passamonti L, Rowe JB, Ewbank M, Hampshire A, Keane J, Calder AJ (2008) Connectivity from the ventral anterior cingulate to the amygdala is modulated by appetitive motivation in response to facial signals of aggression. Neuroimage 43:562–570

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Patel S, Cravatt BF, Hillard CJ (2005) Synergistic interactions between cannabinoids and environmental stress in the activation of the central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 30:497–507

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Phan KL, Fitzgerald DA, Nathan PJ, Tancer ME (2006) Association between amygdala hyperactivity to harsh faces and severity of social anxiety in generalized social phobia. Biol Psychiatry 59:424–429

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Phan KL, Angstadt M, Golden J, Onyewuenyi I, Popovska A, de Wit H (2008) Cannabinoid modulation of amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat in humans. J Neurosci 28:2313–2319

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Phillips ML, Drevets WC, Rauch SL, Lane R (2003) Neurobiology of emotion perception II: implications for major psychiatric disorders. Biol Psychiatry 54:515–528

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Piomelli D (2003) The molecular logic of endocannabinoid signalling. Nat Rev Neurosci 4:873–884

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Piomelli D, Beltramo M, Glasnapp S, Lin SY, Goutopoulos A et al (1999) Structural determinants for recognition and translocation by the anandamide transporter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:5802–5807

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pruessner JC, Dedovic K, Pressner M, Lord C, Buss C et al (2010) Stress regulation in the central nervous system: evidence from structural and functional neuroimaging studies in human populations. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:179–191

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Raine A, Buchsbaum M, LaCasse L (1997) Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography. Biol Psychiatry 42:495–508

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rajender S, Pandu G, Sharma JD, Gandhi KP, Singh L, Thangaraj K (2008) Reduced CAG repeats length in androgen receptor gene is associated with violent criminal behavior. Int J Legal Med 122:367–372

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ray RD, Ochsner KN, Cooper JC, Robertson ER, Gabrieli JD, Gross JJ (2005) Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 5:156–168

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Reul JM, Gesing A, Droste S, Stec IS, Weber A et al (2000) The brain mineralocorticoid receptor: greedy for ligand, mysterious in function. Euro J Pharmacol 405:235–249

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rhodes RA, Murthy NV, Dresner MA, Selvaraj S, Stavrakakis N et al (2007) Human 5-HT transporter availability predicts amygdala reactivity in vivo. J Neurosci 27:9233–9237

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Robson P (2005) Human studies of cannabinoids and medicinal cannabis. Handb Exp Pharmacol 168:719–756

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rodrigues SM, LeDoux JE, Sapolsky RM (2009) The influence of stress hormones on fear circuitry. Annu Rev Neurosci 32:289–313

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Roney JR, Simmons ZL, Lukaszewski AW (2009) Androgen receptor gene sequence and basal cortisol concentrations predict men’s hormonal responses to potential mates. Proc Soc Biol 277:57–63

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rozeboom AM, Akil H, Seasholtz AF (2007) Mineralocorticoid receptor overexpression in forebrain decreases anxiety-like behavior and alters the stress response in mice. Proc Natl Acad of Sci U S A 104:4688–4693

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sadikot AF, Parent A (1990) The monoaminergic innervation of the amygdala in the squirrel monkey: an immunohistochemical study. Neuroscience 36:431–447

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Scherma M, Medalie J, Fratta W, Vadivel SK, Makriyannis A et al (2008) The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide has effects on motivation and anxiety that are revealed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition. Neuropharmacology 54:129–140

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sesack SR, Hawrylak VA, Guido MA, Levey AI (1998) Cellular and subcellular localization of the dopamine transporter in rat cortex. Adv Pharmacol 42:171–174

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sharp T, Boothman L, Raley J, Queree P (2007) Important messages in the ‘post’: recent discoveries in 5-HT neurone feedback control. Trends Pharmacol Sci 28:629–636

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Siessmeier T, Kienast T, Wrase J, Larsen JL, Braus DF et al (2006) Net influx of plasma 6-[18F]fluoro-l-DOPA (FDOPA) to the ventral striatum correlates with prefrontal processing of affective stimuli. Eur J Neurosci 24:305–313

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Siever LJ (2008) Neurobiology of aggression and violence. Am J Psychiatry 165:429–442

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Simon NG (2002) Hormonal processes in the development and expression of aggressive behavior. In: Pfaff DW et al (eds) Hormones, brain and behavior. Academic Press, San Diego

    Google Scholar 

  • Simpson CA, Vuchinich RE (2000) Reliability of a measure of temporal discounting. Psychol Rec 50:3–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Sipe JC, Chiang K, Gerber AL, Beutler E, Cravatt BF (2002) A missense mutation in human fatty acid amide hydrolase associated with problem drug use. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:8394–8399

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Solinas M, Tanda G, Justinova Z, Wertheim CE, Yasar S et al (2007) The endogenous cannabinoid anandamide produces delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-like discriminative and neurochemical effects that are enhanced by inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase but not by inhibition of anandamide transport. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 321:370–380

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Somerville LH, Kim H, Johnstone T, Alexander AL, Whalen PJ (2004) Human amygdala responses during presentation of happy and neutral faces: correlations with state anxiety. Biol Psychiatry 55:897–903

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sorice-Gomez E, Matias I, Rueda-Orozco PE, Cisneros M, Petrosino S et al (2007) Pharmacological enhancement of the endocannabinoid system in the nucleus accumbens shell stimulates food intake and increases c-Fos expression in the hypothalamus. Br J Pharmacol 151:1109–1116

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stein MB, Goldin PR, Sareen J, Zorrilla LT, Brown GG (2002) Increased amygdala activation to angry and contemptuous faces in generalized social phobia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59:1027–1034

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stein MB, Simmons AN, Feinstein JS, Paulus MP (2007) Increased amygdala and insula activation during emotion processing in anxiety-prone subjects. Am J Psychiatry 164:318–327

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tarullo AR, Gunnar MR (2006) Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones Behav 50:632–639

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tessitore A, Hariri AR, Fera F, Smith WG, Chase TN et al (2002) Dopamine modulates the response of the human amygdala: a study in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurosci 22:9099–9103

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thode K, Walss-Bass C, Hariri AR, Olvera R, Munoz K, et al Functional evidence implicating the role of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 in the development of stress-related disorders. Am J Psychiatry (unpublished observation)

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyndale RF, Payne JI, Gerber AL, Sipe JC (2007) The fatty acid amide hydrolase C385A (P129T) missense variant in cannabis users: studies of drug use and dependence in Caucasians. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 144:660–666

    Google Scholar 

  • Ulrich-Lai YM, Herman JP (2009) Neural regulation of endocrine and autonomic stress responses. Nat Rev Neurosci 10:397–409

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Urry HL, van Reekum CM, Johnstone T, Kalin NH, Thurow ME et al (2006) Amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex are inversely coupled during regulation of negative affect and predict diurnal pattern of cortisol secretion among older adults. J Neurosci 26:4415–4425

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • van Dyck CH, Malison RT, Jacobsen LK, Seibyl JP, Staley JK et al (2005) Increased dopamine transporter availability associated with the 9-repeat allele of the SLC6A3 gene. J Nucl Med 46:745–751

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Van Leeuwen N, Kumsta R, Entringer S, de Kloet ER, Zitman FG, DeRijk RH, Wust S (2010) Functional mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) gene variation influences the cortisol awakening response after dexamethasone. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:339–349

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Van Ness SH, Owens MJ, Kilts CD (2005) The variable number of tandem repeats element in DAT1 regulates in vitro dopamine transporter density. BMC Genet 6:55

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • van Praag HM, de Kloet R, van Os J (2004) Stress the brain and depression. Cambridge University Press, New York

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • van Wingen GA, Zylick SA, Pieters S, Mattern C, Verkes RJ, Buitelaar JK, Fernandez G (2008) Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level. Neuropsychopharmacology 34:539–547

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • van Wingen GA, Mattern C, Verkes RJ, Buitelaar J, Fernandez G (2010) Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitalfrontal cortex coupling. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35:105–113

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vermeersch H, T’Sjoen G, Kaufman JM, Vincke J, Van Houtte M (2010) Testosterone, androgen receptor gene CAG repeat length, mood and behaviour in adolescent males. Eur J Endocrinol 163:319–328

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Viding E, Williamson DE, Hariri AR (2006) Developmental imaging genetics: challenges and promises for translational research. Dev Psychopathol 18:877–892

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Viveros MP, Marco EM, File SE (2005) Endocannabinoid system and stress and anxiety responses. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 81:331–342

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang GJ (1999) Imaging studies on the role of dopamine in cocaine reinforcement and addiction in humans. J Psychopharmacol 13:337–345

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wei XY, Yang JY, Dong YX, Wu CF (2007) Anxiolytic-like effects of oleamide in group-housed and socially isolated mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacolo Biol Psychiatry 31:1189–1195

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Whalen PJ, Shin LM, Somerville LH, McLean AA, Kim H (2002) Functional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala in depression. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry 7:234–242

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Williamson DE, Birmaher B, Ryan ND, Shiffrin TP, Lusky JA et al (2003) The stressful life events schedule for children and adolescents: development and validation. Psychiatry Res 119:225–241

    PubMed  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yehuda R (2002) Post-traumatic stress disorder. N Engl J Med 346:108–114

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zitzmann M, Nieschlag E (2003) The CAG repeat polymorphism within the androgen receptor gene and maleness. Int J Androl 26:76–83

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgment

This manuscript is largely based on an earlier publication in the Annual Review of Neuroscience (Hariri 2009).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ryan Bogdan .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Bogdan, R., Carré, J.M., Hariri, A.R. (2011). Toward a Mechanistic Understanding of How Variability in Neurobiology Shapes Individual Differences in Behavior. In: Cryan, J., Reif, A. (eds) Behavioral Neurogenetics. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, vol 12. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2011_182

Download citation