Skip to main content

Behavioural Genetics of Childhood Disorders

Part of the Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences book series (CTBN,volume 12)

Abstract

After a general introduction into genetic risk factors for child psychiatric disorders, four specific child psychiatric disorders with a strong genetic component, namely, Autism Spectrum Disorders, Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder, Nocturnal Enuresis, and obesity, are discussed in detail. Recent evidence of linkage, candidate gene, and genome-wide association studies are presented. This chapter ends with a prospectus on further research needs.

Keywords

  • Autism spectrum disorders
  • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Nocturnal enuresis
  • Obesity
  • BMI
  • Linkage
  • Association
  • Genetic

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/7854_2011_178
  • Chapter length: 34 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-642-27859-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Abrahams BS, Geschwind DH (2008) Advances in autism genetics: on the threshold of a new neurobiology. Nat Rev Genet 5:341–355

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Alarcon M, Abrahams BS, Stone JL, Duvall JA, Perederiy JV, Bomar JM, Sebat J, Wigler M, Martin CL, Ledbetter DH, Nelson SF, Cantor RM, Geschwind DH (2008) Linkage, association, and gene-expression analyses identify CNTNAP2 as an autism-susceptibility gene. Am J Hum Genet 1:150–159

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR.

    Google Scholar 

  • Arcos-Burgos M, Castellanos FX, Pineda D, Lopera F, Palacio JD, Palacio LG, Rapoport JL, Berg K, Bailey-Wilson JE, Muenke M (2004) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population isolate: linkage to loci at 4q13.2, 5q33.3, 11q22, and 17p11. Am J Hum Genet 6:998–1014

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arcos-Burgos M, Jain M, Acosta MT, Shively S, Stanescu H, Wallis D, Domene S, Velez JI, Karkera JD, Balog J, Berg K, Kleta R, Gahl WA, Roessler E, Long R, Lie J, Pineda D, Londono AC, Palacio JD, Arbelaez A, Lopera F, Elia J, Hakonarson H, Johansson S, Knappskog PM, Haavik J, Ribases M, Cormand B, Bayes M, Casas M, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Hervas A, Maher BS, Faraone SV, Seitz C, Freitag CM, Palmason H, Meyer J, Romanos M, Walitza S, Hemminger U, Warnke A, Romanos J, Renner T, Jacob C, Lesch KP, Swanson J, Vortmeyer A, Bailey-Wilson JE, Castellanos FX, Muenke M (2010) A common variant of the latrophilin 3 gene, LPHN3, confers susceptibility to ADHD and predicts effectiveness of stimulant medication. Mol Psychiatry 11:1053–1066

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Arking DE, Cutler DJ, Brune CW, Teslovich TM, West K, Ikeda M, Rea A, Guy M, Lin S, Cook EH, Chakravarti A (2008) A common genetic variant in the neurexin superfamily member CNTNAP2 increases familial risk of autism. Am J Hum Genet 1:160–164

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Arnell H, Hjalmas K, Jagervall M, Lackgren G, Stenberg A, Bengtsson B, Wassen C, Emahazion T, Anneren G, Pettersson U, Sundvall M, Dahl N (1997) The genetics of primary nocturnal enuresis: inheritance and suggestion of a second major gene on chromosome 12q. J Med Genet 5:360–365

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Asherson P, Kuntsi J, Taylor E (2005) Unravelling the complexity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a behavioural genomic approach. Br J Psychiatry:103–105

    Google Scholar 

  • Asherson P, Brookes K, Franke B, Chen W, Gill M, Ebstein RP, Buitelaar J, Banaschewski T, Sonuga-Barke E, Eisenberg J, Manor I, Miranda A, Oades RD, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Steinhausen HC, Faraone SV (2007) Confirmation that a specific haplotype of the dopamine transporter gene is associated with combined-type ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 4:674–677

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Baieli S, Pavone L, Meli C, Fiumara A, Coleman M (2003) Autism and phenylketonuria. J Autism Dev Disord 2:201–204

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bakkaloglu B, O’Roak BJ, Louvi A, Gupta AR, Abelson JF, Morgan TM, Chawarska K, Klin A, Ercan-Sencicek AG, Stillman AA, Tanriover G, Abrahams BS, Duvall JA, Robbins EM, Geschwind DH, Biederer T, Gunel M, Lifton RP, State MW (2008) Molecular cytogenetic analysis and resequencing of contactin associated protein-like 2 in autism spectrum disorders. Am J Hum Genet 1:165–173

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bartlett CW, Gharani N, Millonig JH, Brzustowicz LM (2005) Three autism candidate genes: a synthesis of human genetic analysis with other disciplines. Int J Dev Neurosci 2–3:221–234

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Becker K, El-Faddagh M, Schmidt MH, Esser G, Laucht M (2008) Interaction of dopamine transporter genotype with prenatal smoke exposure on ADHD symptoms. J Pediatr 2:263–269

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Berg JS, Brunetti-Pierri N, Peters SU, Kang SH, Fong CT, Salamone J, Freedenberg D, Hannig VL, Prock LA, Miller DT, Raffalli P, Harris DJ, Erickson RP, Cunniff C, Clark GD, Blazo MA, Peiffer DA, Gunderson KL, Sahoo T, Patel A, Lupski JR, Beaudet AL, Cheung SW (2007) Speech delay and autism spectrum behaviors are frequently associated with duplication of the 7q11.23 Williams-Beuren syndrome region. Genet Med 7:427–441

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bochukova EG, Huang N, Keogh J, Henning E, Purmann C, Blaszczyk K, Saeed S, Hamilton-Shield J, Clayton-Smith J, O’Rahilly S, Hurles ME, Farooqi IS (2010) Large, rare chromosomal deletions associated with severe early-onset obesity. Nature 7281:666–670

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bodmer W, Bonilla C (2008) Common and rare variants in multifactorial susceptibility to common diseases. Nat Genet 6:695–701

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bolton D, Rijsdijk F, O’Connor TG, Perrin S, Eley TC (2007) Obsessive-compulsive disorder, tics and anxiety in 6-year-old twins. Psychol Med 1:39–48

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bonora E, Beyer KS, Lamb JA, Parr JR, Klauck SM, Benner A, Paolucci M, Abbott A, Ragoussis I, Poustka A, Bailey AJ, Monaco AP (2003) Analysis of reelin as a candidate gene for autism. Mol Psychiatry 10:885–892

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bonora E, Lamb JA, Barnby G, Sykes N, Moberly T, Beyer KS, Klauck SM, Poustka F, Bacchelli E, Blasi F, Maestrini E, Battaglia A, Haracopos D, Pedersen L, Isager T, Eriksen G, Viskum B, Sorensen EU, Brondum-Nielsen K, Cotterill R, Engeland H, Jonge M, Kemner C, Steggehuis K, Scherpenisse M, Rutter M, Bolton PF, Parr JR, Poustka A, Bailey AJ, Monaco AP (2005) Mutation screening and association analysis of six candidate genes for autism on chromosome 7q. Eur J Hum Genet 2:198–207

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boomsma DI, Saviouk V, Hottenga JJ, Distel MA, de Moor MH, Vink JM, Geels LM, van Beek JH, Bartels M, de Geus EJ, Willemsen G (2010) Genetic epidemiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD index) in adults. PLoS One 5:e10621

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brookes KJ, Mill J, Guindalini C, Curran S, Xu X, Knight J, Chen CK, Huang YS, Sethna V, Taylor E, Chen W, Breen G, Asherson P (2006) A common haplotype of the dopamine transporter gene associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and interacting with maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1:74–81

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brookes KJ, Xu X, Anney R, Franke B, Zhou K, Chen W, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Ebstein R, Eisenberg J, Gill M, Miranda A, Oades RD, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Sonuga-Barke E, Steinhausen HC, Taylor E, Faraone SV, Asherson P (2008) Association of ADHD with genetic variants in the 5’-region of the dopamine transporter gene: evidence for allelic heterogeneity. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 8:1519–1523

    Google Scholar 

  • Brune CW, Korvatska E, Allen-Brady K, Cook EH Jr, Dawson G, Devlin B, Estes A, Hennelly M, Hyman SL, McMahon WM, Munson J, Rodier PM, Schellenberg GD, Stodgell CJ, Coon H (2008) Heterogeneous association between engrailed-2 and autism in the CPEA network. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2:187–193

    Google Scholar 

  • Bucan M, Abrahams BS, Wang K, Glessner JT, Herman EI, Sonnenblick LI, Alvarez Retuerto AI, Imielinski M, Hadley D, Bradfield JP, Kim C, Gidaya NB, Lindquist I, Hutman T, Sigman M, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Singleton A, Kim J, Wassink TH, McMahon WM, Owley T, Sweeney JA, Coon H, Nurnberger JI, Li M, Cantor RM, Minshew NJ, Sutcliffe JS, Cook EH, Dawson G, Buxbaum JD, Grant SF, Schellenberg GD, Geschwind DH, Hakonarson H (2009) Genome-wide analyses of exonic copy number variants in a family-based study point to novel autism susceptibility genes. PLoS Genet 6:e1000536

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Burmeister M, McInnis MG, Zollner S (2008) Psychiatric genetics: progress amid controversy. Nat Rev Genet 7:527–540

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Burt SA (2009) Rethinking environmental contributions to child and adolescent psychopathology: a meta-analysis of shared environmental influences. Psychol Bull 4:608–637

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell DB, Sutcliffe JS, Ebert PJ, Militerni R, Bravaccio C, Trillo S, Elia M, Schneider C, Melmed R, Sacco R, Persico AM, Levitt P (2006) A genetic variant that disrupts MET transcription is associated with autism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 45:16834–16839

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell DB, D’Oronzio R, Garbett K, Ebert PJ, Mirnics K, Levitt P, Persico AM (2007) Disruption of cerebral cortex MET signaling in autism spectrum disorder. Ann Neurol 3:243–250

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell DB, Buie TM, Winter H, Bauman M, Sutcliffe JS, Perrin JM, Levitt P (2009) Distinct genetic risk based on association of MET in families with co-occurring autism and gastrointestinal conditions. Pediatrics 3:1018–1024

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cole J, Ball HA, Martin NC, Scourfield J, McGuffin P (2009) Genetic overlap between measures of hyperactivity/inattention and mood in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 11:1094–1101

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cook EH Jr, Stein MA, Krasowski MD, Cox NJ, Olkon DM, Kieffer JE, Leventhal BL (1995) Association of attention-deficit disorder and the dopamine transporter gene. Am J Hum Genet 4:993–998

    Google Scholar 

  • Cusco I, Medrano A, Gener B, Vilardell M, Gallastegui F, Villa O, Gonzalez E, Rodriguez-Santiago B, Vilella E, Del CM, Perez-Jurado LA (2009) Autism-specific copy number variants further implicate the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway and the glutamatergic synapse in the etiology of the disorder. Hum Mol Genet 10:1795–1804

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dempfle A, Hinney A, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Raab M, Geller F, Gudermann T, Schafer H, Hebebrand J (2004) Large quantitative effect of melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutations on body mass index. J Med Genet 10:795–800

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Depienne C, Moreno-De-Luca D, Heron D, Bouteiller D, Gennetier A, Delorme R, Chaste P, Siffroi JP, Chantot-Bastaraud S, Benyahia B, Trouillard O, Nygren G, Kopp S, Johansson M, Rastam M, Burglen L, Leguern E, Verloes A, Leboyer M, Brice A, Gillberg C, Betancur C (2009) Screening for genomic rearrangements and methylation abnormalities of the 15q11-q13 region in autism spectrum disorders. Biol Psychiatry 4:349–359

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Devlin B, Bennett P, Dawson G, Figlewicz DA, Grigorenko EL, McMahon W, Minshew N, Pauls D, Smith M, Spence MA, Rodier PM, Stodgell C, Schellenberg GD (2004) Alleles of a reelin CGG repeat do not convey liability to autism in a sample from the CPEA network. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 1:46–50

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Donaldson ZR, Young LJ (2008) Oxytocin, vasopressin, and the neurogenetics of sociality. Science 5903:900–904

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dudbridge F, Gusnanto A (2008) Estimation of significance thresholds for genomewide association scans. Genet Epidemiol 3:227–234

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Duvall JA, Lu A, Cantor RM, Todd RD, Constantino JN, Geschwind DH (2007) A quantitative trait locus analysis of social responsiveness in multiplex autism families. Am J Psychiatry 4:656–662

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ehninger D, De Vries PJ, Silva AJ (2009) From mTOR to cognition: molecular and cellular mechanisms of cognitive impairments in tuberous sclerosis. J Intellect Disabil Res 10:838–851

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eiberg H (1995) Nocturnal enuresis is linked to a specific gene. Scand J Urol Nephrol (Suppl):15–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Eiberg H (1998) Total genome scan analysis in a single extended family for primary nocturnal enuresis: evidence for a new locus (ENUR3) for primary nocturnal enuresis on chromosome 22q11. Eur Urol:34–36

    Google Scholar 

  • Eiberg H, Berendt I, Mohr J (1995) Assignment of dominant inherited nocturnal enuresis (ENUR1) to chromosome 13q. Nat Genet 3:354–356

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eiberg H, Shaumburg HL, von GA, Rittig S (2001) Linkage study of a large Danish 4-generation family with urge incontinence and nocturnal enuresis. J Urol 6:2401–2403

    Google Scholar 

  • Eley TC, Bolton D, O’Connor TG, Perrin S, Smith P, Plomin R (2003) A twin study of anxiety-related behaviours in pre-school children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 7:945–960

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Elia J, Gai X, Xie HM, Perin JC, Geiger E, Glessner JT, D’arcy M, deBerardinis R, Frackelton E, Kim C, Lantieri F, Muganga BM, Wang L, Takeda T, Rappaport EF, Grant SF, Berrettini W, Devoto M, Shaikh TH, Hakonarson H, White PS (2010) Rare structural variants found in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are preferentially associated with neurodevelopmental genes. Mol Psychiatry 6:637–646

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Faraone SV, Perlis RH, Doyle AE, Smoller JW, Goralnick JJ, Holmgren MA, Sklar P (2005) Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 11:1313–1323

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mick E (2006) The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychol Med 2:159–165

    Google Scholar 

  • Farooqi IS, Jebb SA, Langmack G, Lawrence E, Cheetham CH, Prentice AM, Hughes IA, McCamish MA, O’Rahilly S (1999) Effects of recombinant leptin therapy in a child with congenital leptin deficiency. N Engl J Med 12:879–884

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fisher SE, Vargha-Khadem F, Watkins KE, Monaco AP, Pembrey ME (1998) Localisation of a gene implicated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nat Genet 2:168–170

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Francks C, Fisher SE, Marlow AJ, MacPhie IL, Taylor KE, Richardson AJ, Stein JF, Monaco AP (2003) Familial and genetic effects on motor coordination, laterality, and reading-related cognition. Am J Psychiatry 11:1970–1977

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Franke B, Hoogman M, Arias VA, Heister JG, Savelkoul PJ, Naber M, Scheffer H, Kiemeney LA, Kan CC, Kooij JJ, Buitelaar JK (2008) Association of the dopamine transporter (SLC6A3/DAT1) gene 9–6 haplotype with adult ADHD. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 8:1576–1579

    Google Scholar 

  • Franke B, Neale BM, Faraone SV (2009) Genome-wide association studies in ADHD. Hum Genet 1:13–50

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Frayling TM, Timpson NJ, Weedon MN, Zeggini E, Freathy RM, Lindgren CM, Perry JR, Elliott KS, Lango H, Rayner NW, Shields B, Harries LW, Barrett JC, Ellard S, Groves CJ, Knight B, Patch AM, Ness AR, Ebrahim S, Lawlor DA, Ring SM, Ben-Shlomo Y, Jarvelin MR, Sovio U, Bennett AJ, Melzer D, Ferrucci L, Loos RJ, Barroso I, Wareham NJ, Karpe F, Owen KR, Cardon LR, Walker M, Hitman GA, Palmer CN, Doney AS, Morris AD, Smith GD, Hattersley AT, McCarthy MI (2007) A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity. Science 5826:889–894

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM (2007) The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature. Mol Psychiatry 1:2–22

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM, Rohde LA, Lempp T, Romanos M (2010a) Phenotypic and measurement influences on heritability estimates in childhood ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 3:311–323

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Freitag CM, Staal W, Klauck SM, Duketis E, Waltes R (2010b) Genetics of autistic disorders: review and clinical implications. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 3:169–178

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gelhorn HL, Stallings MC, Young SE, Corley RP, Rhee SH, Hewitt JK (2005) Genetic and environmental influences on conduct disorder: symptom, domain and full-scale analyses. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 6:580–591

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Geller F, Reichwald K, Dempfle A, Illig T, Vollmert C, Herpertz S, Siffert W, Platzer M, Hess C, Gudermann T, Biebermann H, Wichmann HE, Schafer H, Hinney A, Hebebrand J (2004) Melanocortin-4 receptor gene variant I103 is negatively associated with obesity. Am J Hum Genet 3:572–581

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gizer IR, Ficks C, Waldman ID (2009) Candidate gene studies of ADHD: a meta-analytic review. Hum Genet 1:51–90

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Glessner JT, Wang K, Cai G, Korvatska O, Kim CE, Wood S, Zhang H, Estes A, Brune CW, Bradfield JP, Imielinski M, Frackelton EC, Reichert J, Crawford EL, Munson J, Sleiman PM, Chiavacci R, Annaiah K, Thomas K, Hou C, Glaberson W, Flory J, Otieno F, Garris M, Soorya L, Klei L, Piven J, Meyer KJ, Anagnostou E, Sakurai T, Game RM, Rudd DS, Zurawiecki D, McDougle CJ, Davis LK, Miller J, Posey DJ, Michaels S, Kolevzon A, Silverman JM, Bernier R, Levy SE, Schultz RT, Dawson G, Owley T, McMahon WM, Wassink TH, Sweeney JA, Nurnberger JI, Coon H, Sutcliffe JS, Minshew NJ, Grant SF, Bucan M, Cook EH, Buxbaum JD, Devlin B, Schellenberg GD, Hakonarson H (2009) Autism genome-wide copy number variation reveals ubiquitin and neuronal genes. Nature 7246:569–573

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gong X, Delorme R, Fauchereau F, Durand CM, Chaste P, Betancur C, Goubran-Botros H, Nygren G, Anckarsater H, Rastam M, Gillberg IC, Kopp S, Mouren-Simeoni MC, Gillberg C, Leboyer M, Bourgeron T (2009) An investigation of ribosomal protein L10 gene in autism spectrum disorders. BMC Med Genet:7

    Google Scholar 

  • Hagerman RJ, Berry-Kravis E, Kaufmann WE, Ono MY, Tartaglia N, Lachiewicz A, Kronk R, Delahunty C, Hessl D, Visootsak J, Picker J, Gane L, Tranfaglia M (2009) Advances in the treatment of fragile X syndrome. Pediatrics 1:378–390

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hardy J, Singleton A (2009) Genomewide association studies and human disease. N Engl J Med 17:1759–1768

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hebebrand J, Propping P (1990) Genetic aspects of brain maturation and behavior. In: Rothenberger A (ed) Brain and behavior in child psychiatry, 1st edn. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • Hebebrand J, Scherag A, Schimmelmann BG, Hinney A (2010) Child and adolescent psychiatric genetics. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 3:259–279

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Heid IM, Vollmert C, Kronenberg F, Huth C, Ankerst DP, Luchner A, Hinney A, Bronner G, Wichmann HE, Illig T, Doring A, Hebebrand J (2008) Association of the MC4R V103I polymorphism with the metabolic syndrome: the KORA Study. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2:369–376

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Henrichsen CN, Chaignat E, Reymond A (2009) Copy number variants, diseases and gene expression. Hum Mol Genet R1:R1–R8

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hessl D, Tassone F, Cordeiro L, Koldewyn K, McCormick C, Green C, Wegelin J, Yuhas J, Hagerman RJ (2008) Brief report: aggression and stereotypic behavior in males with fragile X syndrome–moderating secondary genes in a “single gene” disorder. J Autism Dev Disord 1:184–189

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hill MK, Sahhar M (2006) Genetic counselling for psychiatric disorders. Med J Aust 9:507–510

    Google Scholar 

  • Hindorff LA, Sethupathy P, Junkins HA, Ramos EM, Mehta JP, Collins FS, Manolio TA (2009) Potential etiologic and functional implications of genome-wide association loci for human diseases and traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 23:9362–9367

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hinney A, Hebebrand J (2008) Polygenic obesity in humans. Obes Facts 1:35–42

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hinney A, Hebebrand J (2009) Three at one swoop! Obes Facts 1:3–8

    Google Scholar 

  • Hinney A, Schmidt A, Nottebom K, Heibult O, Becker I, Ziegler A, Gerber G, Sina M, Gorg T, Mayer H, Siegfried W, Fichter M, Remschmidt H, Hebebrand J (1999) Several mutations in the melanocortin-4 receptor gene including a nonsense and a frameshift mutation associated with dominantly inherited obesity in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 4:1483–1486

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hinney A, Hohmann S, Geller F, Vogel C, Hess C, Wermter AK, Brokamp B, Goldschmidt H, Siegfried W, Remschmidt H, Schafer H, Gudermann T, Hebebrand J (2003) Melanocortin-4 receptor gene: case-control study and transmission disequilibrium test confirm that functionally relevant mutations are compatible with a major gene effect for extreme obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 9:4258–4267

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hinney A, Scherag S, Hebebrand J (2010) Genetic findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci:241–270

    Google Scholar 

  • Holtkamp K, Muller B, Heussen N, Remschmidt H, Herpertz-Dahlmann B (2005) Depression, anxiety, and obsessionality in long-term recovered patients with adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2:106–110

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Huang CH, Santangelo SL (2008) Autism and serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 6:903–913

    Google Scholar 

  • Hublin C, Kaprio J, Partinen M, Koskenvuo M (1998) Nocturnal enuresis in a nationwide twin cohort. Sleep 6:579–585

    Google Scholar 

  • Hutcheson HB, Olson LM, Bradford Y, Folstein SE, Santangelo SL, Sutcliffe JS, Haines JL (2004) Examination of NRCAM, LRRN3, KIAA0716, and LAMB1 as autism candidate genes. BMC Med Genet:12

    Google Scholar 

  • Hyde TM, Deep-Soboslay A, Iglesias B, Callicott JH, Gold JM, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Honea RA, Bigelow LB, Egan MF, Emsellem EM, Weinberger DR (2008) Enuresis as a premorbid developmental marker of schizophrenia. Brain (Pt 9):2489–2498

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacob S, Brune CW, Carter CS, Leventhal BL, Lord C, Cook EH Jr (2007) Association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) in Caucasian children and adolescents with autism. Neurosci Lett 1:6–9

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kahn RS, Khoury J, Nichols WC, Lanphear BP (2003) Role of dopamine transporter genotype and maternal prenatal smoking in childhood hyperactive-impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional behaviors. J Pediatr 1:104–110

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kendler KS (2005) “A gene for…”: the nature of gene action in psychiatric disorders. Am J Psychiatry 7:1243–1252

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kessler RC, Adler LA, Barkley R, Biederman J, Conners CK, Faraone SV, Greenhill LL, Jaeger S, Secnik K, Spencer T, Ustun TB, Zaslavsky AM (2005) Patterns and predictors of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder persistence into adulthood: results from the national comorbidity survey replication. Biol Psychiatry 11:1442–1451

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Klauck SM, Felder B, Kolb-Kokocinski A, Schuster C, Chiocchetti A, Schupp I, Wellenreuther R, Schmotzer G, Poustka F, Breitenbach-Koller L, Poustka A (2006) Mutations in the ribosomal protein gene RPL10 suggest a novel modulating disease mechanism for autism. Mol Psychiatry 12:1073–1084

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Knoblauch H (2007) Schizophrenia, human genetics and genetic counselling. Human genetic counselling as part of the psychiatric/psychotherapeutic treatment concept. Nervenarzt 3(243–8):250

    Google Scholar 

  • Krebs MO, Betancur C, Leroy S, Bourdel MC, Gillberg C, Leboyer M (2002) Absence of association between a polymorphic GGC repeat in the 5’ untranslated region of the reelin gene and autism. Mol Psychiatry 7:801–804

    PubMed  CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Krude H, Biebermann H, Luck W, Horn R, Brabant G, Gruters A (1998) Severe early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency and red hair pigmentation caused by POMC mutations in humans. Nat Genet 2:155–157

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar RA, Karamohamed S, Sudi J, Conrad DF, Brune C, Badner JA, Gilliam TC, Nowak NJ, Cook EH Jr, Dobyns WB, Christian SL (2008) Recurrent 16p11.2 microdeletions in autism. Hum Mol Genet 4:628–638

    Google Scholar 

  • Kuntsi J, Neale BM, Chen W, Faraone SV, Asherson P (2006) The IMAGE project: methodological issues for the molecular genetic analysis of ADHD. Behav Brain Funct:27

    Google Scholar 

  • LaHoste GJ, Swanson JM, Wigal SB, Glabe C, Wigal T, King N, Kennedy JL (1996) Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2:121–124

    Google Scholar 

  • Lasky-Su J, Neale BM, Franke B, Anney RJ, Zhou K, Maller JB, Vasquez AA, Chen W, Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Banaschewski T, Ebstein R, Gill M, Miranda A, Mulas F, Oades RD, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Sonuga-Barke E, Steinhausen HC, Taylor E, Daly M, Laird N, Lange C, Faraone SV (2008) Genome-wide association scan of quantitative traits for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder identifies novel associations and confirms candidate gene associations. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 8:1345–1354

    Google Scholar 

  • Lein ES, Hawrylycz MJ, Ao N, Ayres M, Bensinger A, Bernard A, Boe AF, Boguski MS, Brockway KS, Byrnes EJ, Chen L, Chen L, Chen TM, Chin MC, Chong J, Crook BE, Czaplinska A, Dang CN, Datta S, Dee NR, Desaki AL, Desta T, Diep E, Dolbeare TA, Donelan MJ, Dong HW, Dougherty JG, Duncan BJ, Ebbert AJ, Eichele G, Estin LK, Faber C, Facer BA, Fields R, Fischer SR, Fliss TP, Frensley C, Gates SN, Glattfelder KJ, Halverson KR, Hart MR, Hohmann JG, Howell MP, Jeung DP, Johnson RA, Karr PT, Kawal R, Kidney JM, Knapik RH, Kuan CL, Lake JH, Laramee AR, Larsen KD, Lau C, Lemon TA, Liang AJ, Liu Y, Luong LT, Michaels J, Morgan JJ, Morgan RJ, Mortrud MT, Mosqueda NF, Ng LL, Ng R, Orta GJ, Overly CC, Pak TH, Parry SE, Pathak SD, Pearson OC, Puchalski RB, Riley ZL, Rockett HR, Rowland SA, Royall JJ, Ruiz MJ, Sarno NR, Schaffnit K, Shapovalova NV, Sivisay T, Slaughterbeck CR, Smith SC, Smith KA, Smith BI, Sodt AJ, Stewart NN, Stumpf KR, Sunkin SM, Sutram M, Tam A, Teemer CD, Thaller C, Thompson CL, Varnam LR, Visel A, Whitlock RM, Wohnoutka PE, Wolkey CK, Wong VY, Wood M, Yaylaoglu MB, Young RC, Youngstrom BL, Yuan XF, Zhang B, Zwingman TA, Jones AR (2007) Genome-wide atlas of gene expression in the adult mouse brain. Nature 7124:168–176

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lerer E, Levi S, Salomon S, Darvasi A, Yirmiya N, Ebstein RP (2008) Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and autism: relationship to Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and cognition. Mol Psychiatry 10:980–988

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Timmesfeld N, Renner TJ, Halperin R, Roser C, Nguyen TT, Craig DW, Romanos J, Heine M, Meyer J, Freitag C, Warnke A, Romanos M, Schafer H, Walitza S, Reif A, Stephan DA, Jacob C (2008) Molecular genetics of adult ADHD: converging evidence from genome-wide association and extended pedigree linkage studies. J Neural Transm 11:1573–1585

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lesch KP, Selch S, Renner TJ, Jacob C, Nguyen TT, Hahn T, Romanos M, Walitza S, Shoichet S, Dempfle A, Heine M, Boreatti-Hummer A, Romanos J, Gross-Lesch S, Zerlaut H, Wultsch T, Heinzel S, Fassnacht M, Fallgatter A, Allolio B, Schafer H, Warnke A, Reif A, Ropers HH, Ullmann R (2010) Genome-wide copy number variation analysis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: association with neuropeptide Y gene dosage in an extended pedigree. Mol Psychiatry

    Google Scholar 

  • Levy F, Hay DA, McStephen M, Wood C, Waldman I (1997) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a category or a continuum? Genetic analysis of a large-scale twin study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 6:737–744

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li J, Nguyen L, Gleason C, Lotspeich L, Spiker D, Risch N, Myers RM (2004) Lack of evidence for an association between WNT2 and RELN polymorphisms and autism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 1:51–57

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Li D, Sham PC, Owen MJ, He L (2006) Meta-analysis shows significant association between dopamine system genes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Hum Mol Genet 14:2276–2284

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lichtenstein P, Carlstrom E, Rastam M, Gillberg C, Anckarsater H (2010) The Genetics of Autism Spectrum Disorders and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Childhood. Am J Psychiatry

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeys B, Hoebeke P, Raes A, Messiaen L, De PA, Vande WJ (2002) Does monosymptomatic enuresis exist? A molecular genetic exploration of 32 families with enuresis/incontinence. BJU Int 1:76–83

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lowe N, Kirley A, Hawi Z, Sham P, Wickham H, Kratochvil CJ, Smith SD, Lee SY, Levy F, Kent L, Middle F, Rohde LA, Roman T, Tahir E, Yazgan Y, Asherson P, Mill J, Thapar A, Payton A, Todd RD, Stephens T, Ebstein RP, Manor I, Barr CL, Wigg KG, Sinke RJ, Buitelaar JK, Smalley SL, Nelson SF, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Gill M (2004) Joint analysis of the DRD5 marker concludes association with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder confined to the predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes. Am J Hum Genet 2:348–356

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ma DQ, Cuccaro ML, Jaworski JM, Haynes CS, Stephan DA, Parod J, Abramson RK, Wright HH, Gilbert JR, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance MA (2007) Dissecting the locus heterogeneity of autism: significant linkage to chromosome 12q14. Mol Psychiatry 4:376–384

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maes HH, Neale MC, Eaves LJ (1997) Genetic and environmental factors in relative body weight and human adiposity. Behav Genet 4:325–351

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maher BS, Marazita ML, Moss HB, Vanyukov MM (1999) Segregation analysis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet 1:71–78

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maher BS, Marazita ML, Ferrell RE, Vanyukov MM (2002) Dopamine system genes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychiatr Genet 4:207–215

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Manolio TA, Collins FS, Cox NJ, Goldstein DB, Hindorff LA, Hunter DJ, McCarthy MI, Ramos EM, Cardon LR, Chakravarti A, Cho JH, Guttmacher AE, Kong A, Kruglyak L, Mardis E, Rotimi CN, Slatkin M, Valle D, Whittemore AS, Boehnke M, Clark AG, Eichler EE, Gibson G, Haines JL, Mackay TF, McCarroll SA, Visscher PM (2009) Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases. Nature 7265:747–753

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Margallo-Lana M, Morris CM, Gibson AM, Tan AL, Kay DW, Tyrer SP, Moore BP, Ballard CG (2004) Influence of the amyloid precursor protein locus on dementia in Down syndrome. Neurology 11:1996–1998

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall CR, Noor A, Vincent JB, Lionel AC, Feuk L, Skaug J, Shago M, Moessner R, Pinto D, Ren Y, Thiruvahindrapduram B, Fiebig A, Schreiber S, Friedman J, Ketelaars CE, Vos YJ, Ficicioglu C, Kirkpatrick S, Nicolson R, Sloman L, Summers A, Gibbons CA, Teebi A, Chitayat D, Weksberg R, Thompson A, Vardy C, Crosbie V, Luscombe S, Baatjes R, Zwaigenbaum L, Roberts W, Fernandez B, Szatmari P, Scherer SW (2008) Structural variation of chromosomes in autism spectrum disorder. Am J Hum Genet 2:477–488

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McCarthy MI, Abecasis GR, Cardon LR, Goldstein DB, Little J, Ioannidis JP, Hirschhorn JN (2008) Genome-wide association studies for complex traits: consensus, uncertainty and challenges. Nat Rev Genet 5:356–369

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • McGuffin P, Rijsdijk F, Andrew M, Sham P, Katz R, Cardno A (2003) The heritability of bipolar affective disorder and the genetic relationship to unipolar depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 5:497–502

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • McLoughlin G, Ronald A, Kuntsi J, Asherson P, Plomin R (2007) Genetic support for the dual nature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: substantial genetic overlap between the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive components. J Abnorm Child Psychol 6:999–1008

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mefford HC, Sharp AJ, Baker C, Itsara A, Jiang Z, Buysse K, Huang S, Maloney VK, Crolla JA, Baralle D, Collins A, Mercer C, Norga K, de RT, Devriendt K, Bongers EM, de LN, Reardon W, Gimelli S, Bena F, Hennekam RC, Male A, Gaunt L, Clayton-Smith J, Simonic I, Park SM, Mehta SG, Nik-Zainal S, Woods CG, Firth HV, Parkin G, Fichera M, Reitano S, Lo GM, Li KE, Casuga I, Broomer A, Conrad B, Schwerzmann M, Raber L, Gallati S, Striano P, Coppola A, Tolmie JL, Tobias ES, Lilley C, Armengol L, Spysschaert Y, Verloo P, De CA, Goossens L, Mortier G, Speleman F, van BE, Nelen MR, Hochstenbach R, Poot M, Gallagher L, Gill M, McClellan J, King MC, Regan R, Skinner C, Stevenson RE, Antonarakis SE, Chen C, Estivill X, Menten B, Gimelli G, Gribble S, Schwartz S, Sutcliffe JS, Walsh T, Knight SJ, Sebat J, Romano C, Schwartz CE, Veltman JA, de Vries BB, Vermeesch JR, Barber JC, Willatt L, Tassabehji M, Eichler EE (2008) Recurrent rearrangements of chromosome 1q21.1 and variable pediatric phenotypes. N Engl J Med 16:1685–1699

    Google Scholar 

  • Miller DT, Shen Y, Wu BL (2008) Oligonucleotide microarrays for clinical diagnosis of copy number variation. Curr Protoc Hum Genet:Unit

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell AA, Cutler DJ, Chakravarti A (2003) Undetected genotyping errors cause apparent overtransmission of common alleles in the transmission/disequilibrium test. Am J Hum Genet 3:598–610

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Montague CT, Farooqi IS, Whitehead JP, Soos MA, Rau H, Wareham NJ, Sewter CP, Digby JE, Mohammed SN, Hurst JA, Cheetham CH, Earley AR, Barnett AH, Prins JB, O’Rahilly S (1997) Congenital leptin deficiency is associated with severe early-onset obesity in humans. Nature 6636:903–908

    Google Scholar 

  • Neale BM, Lasky-Su J, Anney R, Franke B, Zhou K, Maller JB, Vasquez AA, Asherson P, Chen W, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Ebstein R, Gill M, Miranda A, Oades RD, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Steinhausen HC, Sonuga-Barke E, Mulas F, Taylor E, Laird N, Lange C, Daly M, Faraone SV (2008) Genome-wide association scan of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 8:1337–1344

    Google Scholar 

  • Neale BM, Medland SE, Ripke S, Asherson P, Franke B, Lesch KP, Faraone SV, Nguyen TT, Schafer H, Holmans P, Daly M, Steinhausen HC, Freitag C, Reif A, Renner TJ, Romanos M, Romanos J, Walitza S, Warnke A, Meyer J, Palmason H, Buitelaar J, Vasquez AA, Lambregts-Rommelse N, Gill M, Anney RJ, Langely K, O’Donovan M, Williams N, Owen M, Thapar A, Kent L, Sergeant J, Roeyers H, Mick E, Biederman J, Doyle A, Smalley S, Loo S, Hakonarson H, Elia J, Todorov A, Miranda A, Mulas F, Ebstein RP, Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T, Oades RD, Sonuga-Barke E, McGough J, Nisenbaum L, Middleton F, Hu X, Nelson S (2010) Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 9:884–897

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Page DT, Kuti OJ, Prestia C, Sur M (2009) Haploinsufficiency for Pten and Serotonin transporter cooperatively influences brain size and social behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 6:1989–1994

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Paloyelis Y, Rijsdijk F, Wood AC, Asherson P, Kuntsi J (2010) The genetic association between ADHD symptoms and reading difficulties: the role of inattentiveness and IQ. J Abnorm Child Psychol 8:1083–1095

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pennisi E (2007) Breakthrough of the year. Human genetic variation. Science 5858:1842–1843

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Persico AM, D’Agruma L, Maiorano N, Totaro A, Militerni R, Bravaccio C, Wassink TH, Schneider C, Melmed R, Trillo S, Montecchi F, Palermo M, Pascucci T, Puglisi-Allegra S, Reichelt KL, Conciatori M, Marino R, Quattrocchi CC, Baldi A, Zelante L, Gasparini P, Keller F (2001) Reelin gene alleles and haplotypes as a factor predisposing to autistic disorder. Mol Psychiatry 2:150–159

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pinto D, Pagnamenta AT, Klei L, Anney R, Merico D, Regan R, Conroy J, Magalhaes TR, Correia C, Abrahams BS, Almeida J, Bacchelli E, Bader GD, Bailey AJ, Baird G, Battaglia A, Berney T, Bolshakova N, Bolte S, Bolton PF, Bourgeron T, Brennan S, Brian J, Bryson SE, Carson AR, Casallo G, Casey J, Chung BH, Cochrane L, Corsello C, Crawford EL, Crossett A, Cytrynbaum C, Dawson G, de JM, Delorme R, Drmic I, Duketis E, Duque F, Estes A, Farrar P, Fernandez BA, Folstein SE, Fombonne E, Freitag CM, Gilbert J, Gillberg C, Glessner JT, Goldberg J, Green A, Green J, Guter SJ, Hakonarson H, Heron EA, Hill M, Holt R, Howe JL, Hughes G, Hus V, Igliozzi R, Kim C, Klauck SM, Kolevzon A, Korvatska O, Kustanovich V, Lajonchere CM, Lamb JA, Laskawiec M, Leboyer M, Le CA, Leventhal BL, Lionel AC, Liu XQ, Lord C, Lotspeich L, Lund SC, Maestrini E, Mahoney W, Mantoulan C, Marshall CR, McConachie H, McDougle CJ, McGrath J, McMahon WM, Merikangas A, Migita O, Minshew NJ, Mirza GK, Munson J, Nelson SF, Noakes C, Noor A, Nygren G, Oliveira G, Papanikolaou K, Parr JR, Parrini B, Paton T, Pickles A, Pilorge M, Piven J, Ponting CP, Posey DJ, Poustka A, Poustka F, Prasad A, Ragoussis J, Renshaw K, Rickaby J, Roberts W, Roeder K, Roge B, Rutter ML, Bierut LJ, Rice JP, Salt J, Sansom K, Sato D, Segurado R, Sequeira AF, Senman L, Shah N, Sheffield VC, Soorya L, Sousa I, Stein O, Sykes N, Stoppioni V, Strawbridge C, Tancredi R, Tansey K, Thiruvahindrapduram B, Thompson AP, Thomson S, Tryfon A, Tsiantis J, van EH, Vincent JB, Volkmar F, Wallace S, Wang K, Wang Z, Wassink TH, Webber C, Weksberg R, Wing K, Wittemeyer K, Wood S, Wu J, Yaspan BL, Zurawiecki D, Zwaigenbaum L, Buxbaum JD, Cantor RM, Cook EH, Coon H, Cuccaro ML, Devlin B, Ennis S, Gallagher L, Geschwind DH, Gill M, Haines JL, Hallmayer J, Miller J, Monaco AP, Nurnberger JI, Jr., Paterson AD, Pericak-Vance MA, Schellenberg GD, Szatmari P, Vicente AM, Vieland VJ, Wijsman EM, Scherer SW, Sutcliffe JS, Betancur C (2010) Functional impact of global rare copy number variation in autism spectrum disorders. Nature 7304:368–372

    Google Scholar 

  • Plomin R (2005) Finding genes in child psychology and psychiatry: when are we going to be there? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 10:1030–1038

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Purper-Ouakil D, Wohl M, Mouren MC, Verpillat P, Ades J, Gorwood P (2005) Meta-analysis of family-based association studies between the dopamine transporter gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatr Genet 1:53–59

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ribases M, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Sanchez-Mora C, Bosch R, Richarte V, Palomar G, Gastaminza X, Bielsa A, Arcos-Burgos M, Muenke M, Castellanos FX, Cormand B, Bayes M, Casas M (2010) Contribution of LPHN3 to the genetic susceptibility to ADHD in adulthood: a replication study. Genes Brain Behav

    Google Scholar 

  • Romanos M, Freitag C, Jacob C, Craig DW, Dempfle A, Nguyen TT, Halperin R, Walitza S, Renner TJ, Seitz C, Romanos J, Palmason H, Reif A, Heine M, Windemuth-Kieselbach C, Vogler C, Sigmund J, Warnke A, Schafer H, Meyer J, Stephan DA, Lesch KP (2008) Genome-wide linkage analysis of ADHD using high-density SNP arrays: novel loci at 5q13.1 and 14q12. Mol Psychiatry 5:522–530

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ronald A, Simonoff E, Kuntsi J, Asherson P, Plomin R (2008) Evidence for overlapping genetic influences on autistic and ADHD behaviours in a community twin sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 5:535–542

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rzehak P, Scherag A, Grallert H, Sausenthaler S, Koletzko S, Bauer CP, Schaaf B, von BA, Berdel D, Borte M, Herbarth O, Kramer U, Illig T, Wichmann HE, Hebebrand J, Heinrich J (2010) Associations between BMI and the FTO gene are age dependent: results from the GINI and LISA birth cohort studies up to age 6 years. Obes Facts 3:173–180

    Google Scholar 

  • Scerri TS, Schulte-Korne G (2010) Genetics of developmental dyslexia. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 3:179–197

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schellenberg GD, Dawson G, Sung YJ, Estes A, Munson J, Rosenthal E, Rothstein J, Flodman P, Smith M, Coon H, Leong L, Yu CE, Stodgell C, Rodier PM, Spence MA, Minshew N, McMahon WM, Wijsman EM (2006) Evidence for multiple loci from a genome scan of autism kindreds. Mol Psychiatry 11(1049–60):979

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sebat J, Lakshmi B, Malhotra D, Troge J, Lese-Martin C, Walsh T, Yamrom B, Yoon S, Krasnitz A, Kendall J, Leotta A, Pai D, Zhang R, Lee YH, Hicks J, Spence SJ, Lee AT, Puura K, Lehtimaki T, Ledbetter D, Gregersen PK, Bregman J, Sutcliffe JS, Jobanputra V, Chung W, Warburton D, King MC, Skuse D, Geschwind DH, Gilliam TC, Ye K, Wigler M (2007) Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with autism. Science 5823:445–449

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Serajee FJ, Zhong H, Mahbubul Huq AH (2006) Association of Reelin gene polymorphisms with autism. Genomics 1:75–83

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sha BY, Yang TL, Zhao LJ, Chen XD, Guo Y, Chen Y, Pan F, Zhang ZX, Dong SS, Xu XH, Deng HW (2009) Genome-wide association study suggested copy number variation may be associated with body mass index in the Chinese population. J Hum Genet 4:199–202

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shen WH, Balajee AS, Wang J, Wu H, Eng C, Pandolfi PP, Yin Y (2007) Essential role for nuclear PTEN in maintaining chromosomal integrity. Cell 1:157–170

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Shen Y, Dies KA, Holm IA, Bridgemohan C, Sobeih MM, Caronna EB, Miller KJ, Frazier JA, Silverstein I, Picker J, Weissman L, Raffalli P, Jeste S, Demmer LA, Peters HK, Brewster SJ, Kowalczyk SJ, Rosen-Sheidley B, McGowan C, Duda AW III, Lincoln SA, Lowe KR, Schonwald A, Robbins M, Hisama F, Wolff R, Becker R, Nasir R, Urion DK, Milunsky JM, Rappaport L, Gusella JF, Walsh CA, Wu BL, Miller DT (2010) Clinical genetic testing for patients with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics 4:e727–e735

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sikora DM, Pettit-Kekel K, Penfield J, Merkens LS, Steiner RD (2006) The near universal presence of autism spectrum disorders in children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Am J Med Genet A 14:1511–1518

    Google Scholar 

  • Silventoinen K, Kaprio J (2009) Genetics of tracking of body mass index from birth to late middle age: evidence from twin and family studies. Obes Facts 3:196–202

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Silverman JM, Buxbaum JD, Ramoz N, Schmeidler J, Reichenberg A, Hollander E, Angelo G, Smith CJ, Kryzak LA (2008) Autism-related routines and rituals associated with a mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier SLC25A12 polymorphism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 3:408–410

    Google Scholar 

  • Skaar DA, Shao Y, Haines JL, Stenger JE, Jaworski J, Martin ER, DeLong GR, Moore JH, McCauley JL, Sutcliffe JS, Ashley-Koch AE, Cuccaro ML, Folstein SE, Gilbert JR, Pericak-Vance MA (2005) Analysis of the RELN gene as a genetic risk factor for autism. Mol Psychiatry 6:563–571

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sousa I, Clark TG, Toma C, Kobayashi K, Choma M, Holt R, Sykes NH, Lamb JA, Bailey AJ, Battaglia A, Maestrini E, Monaco AP (2009) MET and autism susceptibility: family and case-control studies. Eur J Hum Genet 6:749–758

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Speliotes EK, Willer CJ, Berndt SI, Monda KL, Thorleifsson G, Jackson AU, Allen HL, Lindgren CM, Luan J, Magi R, Randall JC, Vedantam S, Winkler TW, Qi L, Workalemahu T, Heid IM, Steinthorsdottir V, Stringham HM, Weedon MN, Wheeler E, Wood AR, Ferreira T, Weyant RJ, Segre AV, Estrada K, Liang L, Nemesh J, Park JH, Gustafsson S, Kilpelainen TO, Yang J, Bouatia-Naji N, Esko T, Feitosa MF, Kutalik Z, Mangino M, Raychaudhuri S, Scherag A, Smith AV, Welch R, Zhao JH, Aben KK, Absher DM, Amin N, Dixon AL, Fisher E, Glazer NL, Goddard ME, Heard-Costa NL, Hoesel V, Hottenga JJ, Johansson A, Johnson T, Ketkar S, Lamina C, Li S, Moffatt MF, Myers RH, Narisu N, Perry JR, Peters MJ, Preuss M, Ripatti S, Rivadeneira F, Sandholt C, Scott LJ, Timpson NJ, Tyrer JP, van WS, Watanabe RM, White CC, Wiklund F, Barlassina C, Chasman DI, Cooper MN, Jansson JO, Lawrence RW, Pellikka N, Prokopenko I, Shi J, Thiering E, Alavere H, Alibrandi MT, Almgren P, Arnold AM, Aspelund T, Atwood LD, Balkau B, Balmforth AJ, Bennett AJ, Ben-Shlomo Y, Bergman RN, Bergmann S, Biebermann H, Blakemore AI, Boes T, Bonnycastle LL, Bornstein SR, Brown MJ, Buchanan TA, Busonero F, Campbell H, Cappuccio FP, Cavalcanti-Proenca C, Chen YD, Chen CM, Chines PS, Clarke R, Coin L, Connell J, Day IN, Heijer M, Duan J, Ebrahim S, Elliott P, Elosua R, Eiriksdottir G, Erdos MR, Eriksson JG, Facheris MF, Felix SB, Fischer-Posovszky P, Folsom AR, Friedrich N, Freimer NB, Fu M, Gaget S, Gejman PV, Geus EJ, Gieger C, Gjesing AP, Goel A, Goyette P, Grallert H, Grassler J, Greenawalt DM, Groves CJ, Gudnason V, Guiducci C, Hartikainen AL, Hassanali N, Hall AS, Havulinna AS, Hayward C, Heath AC, Hengstenberg C, Hicks AA, Hinney A, Hofman A, Homuth G, Hui J, Igl W, Iribarren C, Isomaa B, Jacobs KB, Jarick I, Jewell E, John U, Jorgensen T, Jousilahti P, Jula A, Kaakinen M, Kajantie E, Kaplan LM, Kathiresan S, Kettunen J, Kinnunen L, Knowles JW, Kolcic I, Konig IR, Koskinen S, Kovacs P, Kuusisto J, Kraft P, Kvaloy K, Laitinen J, Lantieri O, Lanzani C, Launer LJ, Lecoeur C, Lehtimaki T, Lettre G, Liu J, Lokki ML, Lorentzon M, Luben RN, Ludwig B, Manunta P, Marek D, Marre M, Martin NG, McArdle WL, McCarthy A, McKnight B, Meitinger T, Melander O, Meyre D, Midthjell K, Montgomery GW, Morken MA, Morris AP, Mulic R, Ngwa JS, Nelis M, Neville MJ, Nyholt DR, O’Donnell CJ, O’Rahilly S, Ong KK, Oostra B, Pare G, Parker AN, Perola M, Pichler I, Pietilainen KH, Platou CG, Polasek O, Pouta A, Rafelt S, Raitakari O, Rayner NW, Ridderstrale M, Rief W, Ruokonen A, Robertson NR, Rzehak P, Salomaa V, Sanders AR, Sandhu MS, Sanna S, Saramies J, Savolainen MJ, Scherag S, Schipf S, Schreiber S, Schunkert H, Silander K, Sinisalo J, Siscovick DS, Smit JH, Soranzo N, Sovio U, Stephens J, Surakka I, Swift AJ, Tammesoo ML, Tardif JC, Teder-Laving M, Teslovich TM, Thompson JR, Thomson B, Tonjes A, Tuomi T, van Meurs JB, van Ommen GJ (2010) Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index. Nat Genet 11:937–948

    Google Scholar 

  • Stiles BL (2009) Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10: extending its PTENtacles. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 4:757–761

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stutzmann F, Vatin V, Cauchi S, Morandi A, Jouret B, Landt O, Tounian P, Levy-Marchal C, Buzzetti R, Pinelli L, Balkau B, Horber F, Bougneres P, Froguel P, Meyre D (2007) Non-synonymous polymorphisms in melanocortin-4 receptor protect against obesity: the two facets of a Janus obesity gene. Hum Mol Genet 15:1837–1844

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Stutzmann F, Tan K, Vatin V, Dina C, Jouret B, Tichet J, Balkau B, Potoczna N, Horber F, O’Rahilly S, Farooqi IS, Froguel P, Meyre D (2008) Prevalence of melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency in Europeans and their age-dependent penetrance in multigenerational pedigrees. Diabetes 9:2511–2518

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan PF, Neale MC, Kendler KS (2000) Genetic epidemiology of major depression: review and meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry 10:1552–1562

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan PF, Kendler KS, Neale MC (2003) Schizophrenia as a complex trait: evidence from a meta-analysis of twin studies. Arch Gen Psychiatry 12:1187–1192

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Swanson J, Castellanos FX, Murias M, LaHoste G, Kennedy J (1998a) Cognitive neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2:263–271

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Swanson JM, Sunohara GA, Kennedy JL, Regino R, Fineberg E, Wigal T, Lerner M, Williams L, LaHoste GJ, Wigal S (1998b) Association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene with a refined phenotype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a family-based approach. Mol Psychiatry 1:38–41

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Szatmari P, Paterson AD, Zwaigenbaum L, Roberts W, Brian J, Liu XQ, Vincent JB, Skaug JL, Thompson AP, Senman L, Feuk L, Qian C, Bryson SE, Jones MB, Marshall CR, Scherer SW, Vieland VJ, Bartlett C, Mangin LV, Goedken R, Segre A, Pericak-Vance MA, Cuccaro ML, Gilbert JR, Wright HH, Abramson RK, Betancur C, Bourgeron T, Gillberg C, Leboyer M, Buxbaum JD, Davis KL, Hollander E, Silverman JM, Hallmayer J, Lotspeich L, Sutcliffe JS, Haines JL, Folstein SE, Piven J, Wassink TH, Sheffield V, Geschwind DH, Bucan M, Brown WT, Cantor RM, Constantino JN, Gilliam TC, Herbert M, Lajonchere C, Ledbetter DH, Lese-Martin C, Miller J, Nelson S, Samango-Sprouse CA, Spence S, State M, Tanzi RE, Coon H, Dawson G, Devlin B, Estes A, Flodman P, Klei L, McMahon WM, Minshew N, Munson J, Korvatska E, Rodier PM, Schellenberg GD, Smith M, Spence MA, Stodgell C, Tepper PG, Wijsman EM, Yu CE, Roge B, Mantoulan C, Wittemeyer K, Poustka A, Felder B, Klauck SM, Schuster C, Poustka F, Bolte S, Feineis-Matthews S, Herbrecht E, Schmotzer G, Tsiantis J, Papanikolaou K, Maestrini E, Bacchelli E, Blasi F, Carone S, Toma C, van Engeland H, de Jonge M, Kemner C, Koop F, Langemeijer M, Hijimans C, Staal WG, Baird G, Bolton PF, Rutter ML, Weisblatt E, Green J, Aldred C, Wilkinson JA, Pickles A, Le Couteur A, Berney T, McConachie H, Bailey AJ, Francis K, Honeyman G, Hutchinson A, Parr JR, Wallace S, Monaco AP, Barnby G, Kobayashi K, Lamb JA, Sousa I, Sykes N, Cook EH, Guter SJ, Leventhal BL, Salt J, Lord C, Corsello C, Hus V, Weeks DE, Volkmar F, Tauber M, Fombonne E, Shih A (2007) Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Nat Genet 3:319–328

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thapar A, Harrington R, McGuffin P (2001) Examining the comorbidity of ADHD-related behaviours and conduct problems using a twin study design. Br J Psychiatry:224–229

    Google Scholar 

  • Thapar A, Rice F, Hay D, Boivin J, Langley K, van den Bree M, Rutter M, Harold G (2009) Prenatal smoking might not cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: evidence from a novel design. Biol Psychiatry 8:722–727

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Trikalinos TA, Karvouni A, Zintzaras E, Ylisaukko-Oja T, Peltonen L, Jarvela I, Ioannidis JP (2006) A heterogeneity-based genome search meta-analysis for autism-spectrum disorders. Mol Psychiatry 1:29–36

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Uhl GR, Drgon T, Liu QR, Johnson C, Walther D, Komiyama T, Harano M, Sekine Y, Inada T, Ozaki N, Iyo M, Iwata N, Yamada M, Sora I, Chen CK, Liu HC, Ujike H, Lin SK (2008) Genome-wide association for methamphetamine dependence: convergent results from 2 samples. Arch Gen Psychiatry 3:345–355

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vaisse C, Clement K, Guy-Grand B, Froguel P (1998) A frameshift mutation in human MC4R is associated with a dominant form of obesity. Nat Genet 2:113–114

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • van der Zwaag B, Franke L, Poot M, Hochstenbach R, Spierenburg HA, Vorstman JA, van DE, De Jonge MV, Verbeek NE, Brilstra EH, van ‘t SR, Ophoff RA, van Es MA, Blauw HM, Veldink JH, Buizer-Voskamp JE, Beemer FA, van den Berg LH, Wijmenga C, van Amstel HK, van EH, Burbach JP, Staal WG (2009) Gene-network analysis identifies susceptibility genes related to glycobiology in autism. PLoS ONE 5:e5324

    Google Scholar 

  • van Rijn S, Swaab H, Aleman A, Kahn RS (2008) Social behavior and autism traits in a sex chromosomal disorder: Klinefelter (47XXY) syndrome. J Autism Dev Disord 9:1634–1641

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Von Gontard A, Hollmann E, Eiberg H, Benden B, Rittig S, Lehmkuhl G (1997) Clinical enuresis phenotypes in familial nocturnal enuresis. Scand J Urol Nephrol (Suppl):11–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Von Gontard A, Eiberg H, Hollmann E, Rittig S, Lehmkuhl G (1999) Molecular genetics of nocturnal enuresis: linkage to a locus on chromosome 22. Scand J Urol Nephrol (Suppl):76–80

    Google Scholar 

  • Von Gontard A, Schaumburg H, Hollmann E, Eiberg H, Rittig S (2001) The genetics of enuresis: a review. J Urol 6:2438–2443

    Google Scholar 

  • Vorstman JA, Morcus ME, Duijff SN, Klaassen PW, Heineman-de Boer JA, Beemer FA, Swaab H, Kahn RS, van Engeland H (2006a) The 22q11.2 deletion in children: high rate of autistic disorders and early onset of psychotic symptoms. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 9:1104–1113

    Google Scholar 

  • Vorstman JA, Staal WG, van Daalen E, van Engeland H, Hochstenbach PF, Franke L (2006b) Identification of novel autism candidate regions through analysis of reported cytogenetic abnormalities associated with autism. Mol Psychiatry 1:1, 18–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Walters RG, Jacquemont S, Valsesia A, de Smith AJ, Martinet D, Andersson J, Falchi M, Chen F, Andrieux J, Lobbens S, Delobel B, Stutzmann F, El-Sayed Moustafa JS, Chevre JC, Lecoeur C, Vatin V, Bouquillon S, Buxton JL, Boute O, Holder-Espinasse M, Cuisset JM, Lemaitre MP, Ambresin AE, Brioschi A, Gaillard M, Giusti V, Fellmann F, Ferrarini A, Hadjikhani N, Campion D, Guilmatre A, Goldenberg A, Calmels N, Mandel JL, Le CC, David A, Isidor B, Cordier MP, Dupuis-Girod S, Labalme A, Sanlaville D, Beri-Dexheimer M, Jonveaux P, Leheup B, Ounap K, Bochukova EG, Henning E, Keogh J, Ellis RJ, Macdermot KD, van Haelst MM, Vincent-Delorme C, Plessis G, Touraine R, Philippe A, Malan V, Mathieu-Dramard M, Chiesa J, Blaumeiser B, Kooy RF, Caiazzo R, Pigeyre M, Balkau B, Sladek R, Bergmann S, Mooser V, Waterworth D, Reymond A, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Kurg A, Palta P, Esko T, Metspalu A, Nelis M, Elliott P, Hartikainen AL, McCarthy MI, Peltonen L, Carlsson L, Jacobson P, Sjostrom L, Huang N, Hurles ME, O’Rahilly S, Farooqi IS, Mannik K, Jarvelin MR, Pattou F, Meyre D, Walley AJ, Coin LJ, Blakemore AI, Froguel P, Beckmann JS (2010) A new highly penetrant form of obesity due to deletions on chromosome 16p11.2. Nature 7281:671–675

    Google Scholar 

  • Walzer S (1985) X chromosome abnormalities and cognitive development: implications for understanding normal human development. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2:177–184

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wang L, Jia M, Yue W, Tang F, Qu M, Ruan Y, Lu T, Zhang H, Yan H, Liu J, Guo Y, Zhang J, Yang X, Zhang D (2008) Association of the ENGRAILED 2 (EN2) gene with autism in Chinese Han population. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 4:434–438

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang D, Ma J, Zhang S, Hinney A, Hebebrand J, Wang Y, Wang HJ (2010a) Association of the MC4R V103I polymorphism with obesity: a Chinese case-control study and meta-analysis in 55,195 individuals. Obesity (Silver Spring) 3:573–579

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang K, Li WD, Glessner JT, Grant SF, Hakonarson H, Price RA (2010b) Large copy-number variations are enriched in cases with moderate to extreme obesity. Diabetes 10:2690–2694

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Weiss LA, Shen Y, Korn JM, Arking DE, Miller DT, Fossdal R, Saemundsen E, Stefansson H, Ferreira MA, Green T, Platt OS, Ruderfer DM, Walsh CA, Altshuler D, Chakravarti A, Tanzi RE, Stefansson K, Santangelo SL, Gusella JF, Sklar P, Wu BL, Daly MJ (2008) Association between microdeletion and microduplication at 16p11.2 and autism. N Engl J Med 7:667–675

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Willer CJ, Speliotes EK, Loos RJ, Li S, Lindgren CM, Heid IM, Berndt SI, Elliott AL, Jackson AU, Lamina C, Lettre G, Lim N, Lyon HN, McCarroll SA, Papadakis K, Qi L, Randall JC, Roccasecca RM, Sanna S, Scheet P, Weedon MN, Wheeler E, Zhao JH, Jacobs LC, Prokopenko I, Soranzo N, Tanaka T, Timpson NJ, Almgren P, Bennett A, Bergman RN, Bingham SA, Bonnycastle LL, Brown M, Burtt NP, Chines P, Coin L, Collins FS, Connell JM, Cooper C, Smith GD, Dennison EM, Deodhar P, Elliott P, Erdos MR, Estrada K, Evans DM, Gianniny L, Gieger C, Gillson CJ, Guiducci C, Hackett R, Hadley D, Hall AS, Havulinna AS, Hebebrand J, Hofman A, Isomaa B, Jacobs KB, Johnson T, Jousilahti P, Jovanovic Z, Khaw KT, Kraft P, Kuokkanen M, Kuusisto J, Laitinen J, Lakatta EG, Luan J, Luben RN, Mangino M, McArdle WL, Meitinger T, Mulas A, Munroe PB, Narisu N, Ness AR, Northstone K, O’Rahilly S, Purmann C, Rees MG, Ridderstrale M, Ring SM, Rivadeneira F, Ruokonen A, Sandhu MS, Saramies J, Scott LJ, Scuteri A, Silander K, Sims MA, Song K, Stephens J, Stevens S, Stringham HM, Tung YC, Valle TT, Van Duijn CM, Vimaleswaran KS, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Wallace C, Watanabe RM, Waterworth DM, Watkins N, Witteman JC, Zeggini E, Zhai G, Zillikens MC, Altshuler D, Caulfield MJ, Chanock SJ, Farooqi IS, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Hattersley AT, Hu FB, Jarvelin MR, Laakso M, Mooser V, Ong KK, Ouwehand WH, Salomaa V, Samani NJ, Spector TD, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Uda M, Uitterlinden AG, Wareham NJ, Deloukas P, Frayling TM, Groop LC, Hayes RB, Hunter DJ, Mohlke KL, Peltonen L, Schlessinger D, Strachan DP, Wichmann HE, McCarthy MI, Boehnke M, Barroso I, Abecasis GR, Hirschhorn JN (2009) Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation. Nat Genet 1:25–34

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Williams NM, Zaharieva I, Martin A, Langley K, Mantripragada K, Fossdal R, Stefansson H, Stefansson K, Magnusson P, Gudmundsson OO, Gustafsson O, Holmans P, Owen MJ, O’Donovan M, Thapar A (2010) Rare chromosomal deletions and duplications in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a genome-wide analysis. Lancet 9750:1401–1408

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wood AC (2010) Rethinking shared environment as a source of variance underlying attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms: comment on Burt (2009). Psychol Bull

    Google Scholar 

  • Wood AC, Rijsdijk F, Asherson P, Kuntsi J (2009) Hyperactive-impulsive symptom scores and oppositional behaviours reflect alternate manifestations of a single liability. Behav Genet 5:447–460

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wu S, Jia M, Ruan Y, Liu J, Guo Y, Shuang M, Gong X, Zhang Y, Yang X, Zhang D (2005) Positive association of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) with autism in the Chinese Han population. Biol Psychiatry 1:74–77

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Xiang B, Zhu H, Shen Y, Miller DT, Lu K, Hu X, Andersson HC, Narumanchi TM, Wang Y, Martinez JE, Wu BL, Li P, Li MM, Chen TJ, Fan YS (2010) Genome-wide oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization for etiological diagnosis of mental retardation: a multicenter experience of 1499 clinical cases. J Mol Diagn 2:204–212

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang B, Chan RC, Jing J, Li T, Sham P, Chen RY (2007) A meta-analysis of association studies between the 10-repeat allele of a VNTR polymorphism in the 3’-UTR of dopamine transporter gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet

    Google Scholar 

  • Yang P, Lung FW, Jong YJ, Hsieh HY, Liang CL, Juo SH (2008) Association of the homeobox transcription factor gene ENGRAILED 2 with autistic disorder in Chinese children. Neuropsychobiology 1–2:3–8

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yeo GS, Farooqi IS, Aminian S, Halsall DJ, Stanhope RG, O’Rahilly S (1998) A frameshift mutation in MC4R associated with dominantly inherited human obesity. Nat Genet 2:111–112

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yeo GS, Connie Hung CC, Rochford J, Keogh J, Gray J, Sivaramakrishnan S, O’rahilly S, Farooqi IS (2004) A de novo mutation affecting human TrkB associated with severe obesity and developmental delay. Nat Neurosci 11:1187–1189

    Google Scholar 

  • Young EH, Wareham NJ, Farooqi S, Hinney A, Hebebrand J, Scherag A, O’Rahilly S, Barroso I, Sandhu MS (2007) The V103I polymorphism of the MC4R gene and obesity: population based studies and meta-analysis of 29 563 individuals. Int J Obes (Lond) 9:1437–1441

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman JM (1994) Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and its human homologue. Nature 6505:425–432

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang H, Liu X, Zhang C, Mundo E, Macciardi F, Grayson DR, Guidotti AR, Holden JJ (2002) Reelin gene alleles and susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders. Mol Psychiatry 9:1012–1017

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhou K, Chen W, Buitelaar J, Banaschewski T, Oades RD, Franke B, Sonuga-Barke E, Ebstein R, Eisenberg J, Gill M, Manor I, Miranda A, Mulas F, Roeyers H, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Steinhausen HC, Lasky-Su J, Taylor E, Brookes KJ, Xu X, Neale BM, Rijsdijk F, Thompson M, Asherson P, Faraone SV (2008a) Genetic heterogeneity in ADHD: DAT1 gene only affects probands without CD. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 8:1481–1487

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhou K, Dempfle A, Arcos-Burgos M, Bakker SC, Banaschewski T, Biederman J, Buitelaar J, Castellanos FX, Doyle A, Ebstein RP, Ekholm J, Forabosco P, Franke B, Freitag C, Friedel S, Gill M, Hebebrand J, Hinney A, Jacob C, Lesch KP, Loo SK, Lopera F, McCracken JT, McGough JJ, Meyer J, Mick E, Miranda A, Muenke M, Mulas F, Nelson SF, Nguyen TT, Oades RD, Ogdie MN, Palacio JD, Pineda D, Reif A, Renner TJ, Roeyers H, Romanos M, Rothenberger A, Schafer H, Sergeant J, Sinke RJ, Smalley SL, Sonuga-Barke E, Steinhausen HC, van der Meulen E, Walitza S, Warnke A, Lewis CM, Faraone SV, Asherson P (2008b) Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 8:1392–1398

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Christine M. Freitag .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Freitag, C.M., Asherson, P., Hebebrand, J. (2011). Behavioural Genetics of Childhood Disorders. In: Cryan, J., Reif, A. (eds) Behavioral Neurogenetics. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, vol 12. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2011_178

Download citation