Uterine Cancer pp 151-169 | Cite as

Primary Hormonal Therapy of Endometrial Cancer

  • Linda R. DuskaEmail author
Part of the Current Clinical Oncology book series (CCO)


This chapter discusses the treatment of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in premenopausal women with hormonal therapy for the purpose of preserving the corpus and future fertility. In addition, postmenopausal women who are not candidates for surgery may benefit from similar approaches.


Endometrial cancer Premenopausal Fertility preservation Hormonal treatment 


  1. 1.
    Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2014. CA Can J Clin. 2014;64(1):9–29.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pecorelli S. Revised FIGO staging for carcinoma of the vulva, cervix, and endometrium. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;105(2):103–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lajer H, Elnegaard S, Christensen RD, Ortoft G, Schledermann DE, Mogensen O. Survival after stage IA endometrial cancer; can follow-up be altered? A prospective nationwide Danish survey. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(8):976–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al. SEER Cancer Statistics Review. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD,, based on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER web site, April 2014. 1975-2011Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peterson EP. Endometrial carcinoma in young women. A clinical profile. Obstet Gynecol. 1968;31(5):702–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kempson RL, Pokorny GE. Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in women aged forty and younger. Cancer. 1968;21(4):650–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Crissman JD, Azoury RS, Barnes AE, Schellhas HF. Endometrial carcinoma in women 40 years of age or younger. Obstet Gynecol. 1981;57(6):699–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gallup DG, Stock RJ. Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in women 40 years of age or younger. Obstet Gynecol. 1984;64(3):417–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Farhi DC, Nosanchuk J, Silverberg SG. Endometrial adenocarcinoma in women under 25 years of age. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;68(6):741–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jeffery JD, Taylor R, Robertson DI, Stuart GC. Endometrial carcinoma occurring in patients under the age of 45 years. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;156(2):366–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gitsch G, Hanzal E, Jensen D, Hacker NF. Endometrial cancer in premenopausal women 45 years and younger. Obstet Gynecol. 1995;85(4):504–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Evans-Metcalf ER, Brooks SE, Reale FR, Baker SP. Profile of women 45 years of age and younger with endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 1998;91(3):349–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Soliman PT, Oh JC, Schmeler KM, et al. Risk factors for young premenopausal women with endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(3):575–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duska LR, Garrett A, Rueda BR, Haas J, Chang Y, Fuller AF. Endometrial cancer in women 40 years old or younger. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;83(2):388–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee NK, Cheung MK, Shin JY, et al. Prognostic factors for uterine cancer in reproductive-aged women. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;109(3):655–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Richter CE, Qian B, Martel M, et al. Ovarian preservation and staging in reproductive-age endometrial cancer patients. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;114(1):99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Polednak AP. Trends in incidence rates for obesity-associated cancers in the US. Cancer Detect Prev. 2003;27(6):415–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Reeves GK, Pirie K, Beral V, et al. Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study. BMJ. 2007;335(7630):1134.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Havrilesky LJ, Maxwell GL, Myers ER. Cost-effectiveness analysis of annual screening strategies for endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(6):640, e641–e648.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kwon JS, Lu KH. Cost-effectiveness analysis of endometrial cancer prevention strategies for obese women. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112(1):56–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rose PG. Endometrial carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(9):640–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmeler KM, Soliman PT, Sun CC, Slomovitz BM, Gershenson DM, Lu KH. Endometrial cancer in young, normal-weight women. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99(2):388–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Park JY, Seong SJ, Kim TJ, et al. Pregnancy outcomes after fertility-sparing management in young women with early endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(1):136–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang CJ, Chao A, Yang LY, et al. Fertility-preserving treatment in young women with endometrial adenocarcinoma: a long-term cohort study. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014;24(4):718–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lu KH, Dinh M, Kohlmann W, et al. Gynecologic cancer as a “sentinel cancer” for women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(3):569–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kurman RJ, Norris HJ. Evaluation of criteria for distinguishing atypical endometrial hyperplasia from well-differentiated carcinoma. Cancer. 1982;49(12):2547–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zaino RJ, Kauderer J, Trimble CL, et al. Reproducibility of the diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer. 2006;106(4):804–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Trimble CL, Kauderer J, Zaino R, et al. Concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with a biopsy diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer. 2006;106(4):812–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Creasman WT, Morrow CP, Bundy BN, Homesley HD, Graham JE, Heller PB. Surgical pathologic spread patterns of endometrial cancer: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Cancer. 1987;60(8 Suppl):2035–41.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Walker JL, Piedmonte MR, Spirtos NM, et al. Laparoscopy compared with laparotomy for comprehensive surgical staging of uterine cancer: Gynecologic Oncology Group study LAP2. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(32):5331–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cowles TA, Magrina JF, Masterson BJ, Capen CV. Comparison of clinical and surgical-staging in patients with endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;66(3):413–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Daniel AG, Peters 3rd WA. Accuracy of office and operating room curettage in the grading of endometrial carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 1988;71(4):612–4.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eltabbakh GH, Shamonki J, Mount SL. Surgical stage, final grade, and survival of women with endometrial carcinoma whose preoperative endometrial biopsy shows well-differentiated tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99(2):309–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    DelMaschio A, Vanzulli A, Sironi S, et al. Estimating the depth of myometrial involvement by endometrial carcinoma: efficacy of transvaginal sonography vs MR imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1993;160(3):533–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gordon AN, Fleischer AC, Dudley BS, et al. Preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma by sonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Gynecol Oncol. 1989;34(2):175–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kim SH, Kim HD, Song YS, Kang SB, Lee HP. Detection of deep myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma: comparison of transvaginal ultrasound, CT, and MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1995;19(5):766–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zerbe MJ, Bristow R, Grumbine FC, Montz FJ. Inability of preoperative computed tomography scans to accurately predict the extent of myometrial invasion and extracorporal spread in endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;78(1):67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hardesty LA, Sumkin JH, Hakim C, Johns C, Nath M. The ability of helical CT to preoperatively stage endometrial carcinoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001;176(3):603–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Frei KA, Kinkel K. Staging endometrial cancer: role of magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Res Imag JMRI. 2001;13(6):850–5.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chung HH, Kang SB, Cho JY, et al. Accuracy of MR imaging for the prediction of myometrial invasion of endometrial carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;104(3):654–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nakao Y, Yokoyama M, Hara K, et al. MR imaging in endometrial carcinoma as a diagnostic tool for the absence of myometrial invasion. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;102(2):343–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yamashita Y, Harada M, Sawada T, Takahashi M, Miyazaki K, Okamura H. Normal uterus and FIGO stage I endometrial carcinoma: dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 1993;186(2):495–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sironi S, Colombo E, Villa G, et al. Myometrial invasion by endometrial carcinoma: assessment with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Radiology. 1992;185(1):207–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Scoutt LM, McCarthy SM, Flynn SD, et al. Clinical stage I endometrial carcinoma: pitfalls in preoperative assessment with MR imaging. Work in progress. Radiology. 1995;194(2):567–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lee EJ, Byun JY, Kim BS, Koong SE, Shinn KS. Staging of early endometrial carcinoma: assessment with T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging. Radiographics. 1999;19(4):937–45. discussion 946–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Minderhoud-Bassie W, Treurniet FE, Koops W, Chadha-Ajwani S, Hage JC, Huikeshoven FJ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endometrial carcinoma; preoperative estimation of depth of myometrial invasion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1995;74(10):827–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Suh DS, Kim JK, Kim KR, et al. Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging in assessing myometrial invasion absence in endometrial carcinoma. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(9):990–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hricak H, Stern JL, Fisher MR, Shapeero LG, Winkler ML, Lacey CG. Endometrial carcinoma staging by MR imaging. Radiology. 1987;162(2):297–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ito K, Matsumoto T, Nakada T, Nakanishi T, Fujita N, Yamashita H. Assessing myometrial invasion by endometrial carcinoma with dynamic MRI. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1994;18(1):77–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kinkel K, Kaji Y, Yu KK, et al. Radiologic staging in patients with endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis. Radiology. 1999;212(3):711–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sanjuan A, Escaramis G, Ayuso JR, et al. Role of magnetic resonance imaging and cause of pitfalls in detecting myometrial invasion and cervical involvement in endometrial cancer. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278(6):535–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Joja I, Asakawa M, Asakawa T, et al. Endometrial carcinoma: dynamic MRI with turbo-FLASH technique. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1996;20(6):878–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Saez F, Urresola A, Larena JA, et al. Endometrial carcinoma: assessment of myometrial invasion with plain and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. J Magn Res Imag JMRI. 2000;12(3):460–6.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Savci G, Ozyaman T, Tutar M, Bilgin T, Erol O, Tuncel E. Assessment of depth of myometrial invasion by endometrial carcinoma: comparison of T2-weighted SE and contrast-enhanced dynamic GRE MR imaging. Eur Radiol. 1998;8(2):218–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Seki H, Kimura M, Sakai K. Myometrial invasion of endometrial carcinoma: assessment with dynamic MR and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. Clin Radiol. 1997;52(1):18–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ben-Shachar I, Vitellas KM, Cohn DE. The role of MRI in the conservative management of endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;93(1):233–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Frei KA, Kinkel K, Bonel HM, Lu Y, Zaloudek C, Hricak H. Prediction of deep myometrial invasion in patients with endometrial cancer: clinical utility of contrast-enhanced MR imaging-a meta-analysis and Bayesian analysis. Radiology. 2000;216(2):444–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Simpson AN, Feigenberg T, Clarke BA, et al. Fertility sparing treatment of complex atypical hyperplasia and low grade endometrial cancer using oral progestin. Gynecol Oncol. 2014;133(2):229–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ramirez PT, Frumovitz M, Bodurka DC, Sun CC, Levenback C. Hormonal therapy for the management of grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma: a literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;95(1):133–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gotlieb WH, Beiner ME, Shalmon B, et al. Outcome of fertility-sparing treatment with progestins in young patients with endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2003;102(4):718–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gunderson CC, Fader AN, Carson KA, Bristow RE. Oncologic and reproductive outcomes with progestin therapy in women with endometrial hyperplasia and grade 1 adenocarcinoma: a systematic review. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;125(2):477–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Koskas M, Uzan J, Luton D, Rouzier R, Darai E. Prognostic factors of oncologic and reproductive outcomes in fertility-sparing management of endometrial atypical hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma: systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2014;101(3):785–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bokhman JV, Chepick OF, Volkova AT, Vishnevsky AS. Can primary endometrial carcinoma stage I be cured without surgery and radiation therapy? Gynecol Oncol. 1985;20(2):139–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Randall TC, Kurman RJ. Progestin treatment of atypical hyperplasia and well-differentiated carcinoma of the endometrium in women under age 40. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;90(3):434–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Park JY, Kim DY, Kim JH, et al. Long-term oncologic outcomes after fertility-sparing management using oral progestin for young women with endometrial cancer (KGOG 2002). Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(4):868–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Park JY, Kim DY, Kim TJ, et al. Hormonal therapy for women with stage IA endometrial cancer of all grades. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122(1):7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Penner KR, Dorigo O, Aoyama C, et al. Predictors of resolution of complex atypical hyperplasia or grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma in premenopausal women treated with progestin therapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2012;124(3):542–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wang CB, Wang CJ, Huang HJ, et al. Fertility-preserving treatment in young patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cancer. 2002;94(8):2192–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Niwa K, Tagami K, Lian Z, Onogi K, Mori H, Tamaya T. Outcome of fertility-preserving treatment in young women with endometrial carcinomas. BJOG. 2005;112(3):317–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ushijima K, Yahata H, Yoshikawa H, et al. Multicenter phase II study of fertility-sparing treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate for endometrial carcinoma and atypical hyperplasia in young women. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(19):2798–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Shan BE, Ren YL, Sun JM, et al. A prospective study of fertility-sparing treatment with megestrol acetate following hysteroscopic curettage for well-differentiated endometrioid carcinoma and atypical hyperplasia in young women. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013;288(5):1115–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    NCT00788671. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device (IUD) to Treat Complex Atypical Hyperplasia (CAH) and Grade 1 Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma (G1EEC). (Sponsor: MD Anderson PI: Shannon Westin, MD).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    NCT01594879. Treatment With Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Plus LNG-IUS in Young Women With Early Stage Endometrial Cancer.Sponsor: Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group PI: Seok Ju Soeng, MD.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Park JY, Lee SH, Seong SJ, et al. Progestin re-treatment in patients with recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma after successful fertility-sparing management using progestin. Gynecol Oncol. 2013;129(1):7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kim YB, Holschneider CH, Ghosh K, Nieberg RK, Montz FJ. Progestin alone as primary treatment of endometrial carcinoma in premenopausal women. Report of seven cases and review of the literature. Cancer. 1997;79(2):320–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ferrandina G, Zannoni GF, Gallotta V, Foti E, Mancuso S, Scambia G. Progression of conservatively treated endometrial carcinoma after full term pregnancy: a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99(1):215–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rubatt JM, Slomovitz BM, Burke TW, Broaddus RR. Development of metastatic endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma while on progestin therapy for endometrial hyperplasia. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;99(2):472–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kaku T, Yoshikawa H, Tsuda H, et al. Conservative therapy for adenocarcinoma and atypical endometrial hyperplasia of the endometrium in young women: central pathologic review and treatment outcome. Cancer Lett. 2001;167(1):39–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kothari R, Seamon L, Cohn D, Fowler J, O’Malley DM. Stage IV endometrial cancer after failed conservative management: a case report. Gynecol Oncol. 2008;111(3):579–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ogawa S, Koike T, Shibahara H, et al. Assisted reproductive technologies in conjunction with conservatively treated endometrial adenocarcinoma. A case report. Gynecol Obstet Investig. 2001;51(3):214–6.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jobo T, Imai M, Kawaguchi M, Kenmochi M, Kuramoto H. Successful conservative treatment of endometrial carcinoma permitting subsequent pregnancy: report of two cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2000;21(2):119–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sardi J, Anchezar Henry JP, Paniceres G, Gomez Rueda N, Vighi S. Primary hormonal treatment for early endometrial carcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 1998;19(6):565–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Shibahara H, Shigeta M, Toji H, et al. Successful pregnancy in an infertile patient with conservatively treated endometrial adenocarcinoma after transfer of embryos obtained by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Hum Reprod. 1999;14(7):1908–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kung FT, Chen WJ, Chou HH, Ko SF, Chang SY. Conservative management of early endometrial adenocarcinoma with repeat curettage and hormone therapy under assistance of hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Hum Reprod. 1997;12(8):1649–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Mazzon I, Corrado G, Morricone D, Scambia G. Reproductive preservation for treatment of stage IA endometrial cancer in a young woman: hysteroscopic resection. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2005;15(5):974–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yarali H, Bozdag G, Aksu T, Ayhan A. A successful pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and embryo transfer in a patient with endometrial cancer who was treated conservatively. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(1):214–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Nakao Y, Nomiyama M, Kojima K, Matsumoto Y, Yamasaki F, Iwasaka T. Successful pregnancies in 2 infertile patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Obstet Investig. 2004;58(2):68–71.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pinto AB, Gopal M, Herzog TJ, Pfeifer JD, Williams DB. Successful in vitro fertilization pregnancy after conservative management of endometrial cancer. Fertil Steril. 2001;76(4):826–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kimmig R, Strowitzki T, Muller-Hocker J, Kurzl R, Korell M, Hepp H. Conservative treatment of endometrial cancer permitting subsequent triplet pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol. 1995;58(2):255–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Walsh C, Holschneider C, Hoang Y, Tieu K, Karlan B, Cass I. Coexisting ovarian malignancy in young women with endometrial cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106(4):693–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Navarria I, Usel M, Rapiti E, et al. Young patients with endometrial cancer: how many could be eligible for fertility-sparing treatment? Gynecol Oncol. 2009;114(3):448–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wright JD, Buck AM, Shah M, Burke WM, Schiff PB, Herzog TJ. Safety of ovarian preservation in premenopausal women with endometrial cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(8):1214–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Zivanovic O, Carter J, Kauff ND, Barakat RR. A review of the challenges faced in the conservative treatment of young women with endometrial carcinoma and risk of ovarian cancer. Gynecol Oncol. 2009;115(3):504–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shamshirsaz AA, Withiam-Leitch M, Odunsi K, Baker T, Frederick PJ, Lele S. Young patients with endometrial carcinoma selected for conservative treatment: a need for vigilance for synchronous ovarian carcinomas, case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;104(3):757–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zaino R, Whitney C, Brady MF, DeGeest K, Burger RA, Buller RE. Simultaneously detected endometrial and ovarian carcinomas—a prospective clinicopathologic study of 74 cases: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Gynecol Oncol. 2001;83(2):355–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Morice P, Fourchotte V, Sideris L, Gariel C, Duvillard P, Castaigne D. A need for laparoscopic evaluation of patients with endometrial carcinoma selected for conservative treatment. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;96(1):245–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mitsushita J, Toki T, Kato K, Fujii S, Konishi I. Endometrial carcinoma remaining after term pregnancy following conservative treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate. Gynecol Oncol. 2000;79(1):129–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Montz FJ, Bristow RE, Bovicelli A, Tomacruz R, Kurman RJ. Intrauterine progesterone treatment of early endometrial cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(4):651–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dhar KK, NeedhiRajan T, Koslowski M, Woolas RP. Is levonorgestrel intrauterine system effective for treatment of early endometrial cancer? Report of four cases and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97(3):924–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jones K, Georgiou M, Hyatt D, Spencer T, Thomas H. Endometrial adenocarcinoma following the insertion of a Mirena IUCD. Gynecol Oncol. 2002;87(2):216–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hubbs JL, Saig RM, Abaid LN, Bae-Jump VL, Gehrig PA. Systemic and local hormone therapy for endometrial hyperplasia and early adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;121(6):1172–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Jeon YT, Park IA, Kim YB, et al. Steroid receptor expressions in endometrial cancer: clinical significance and epidemiological implication. Cancer Lett. 2006;239(2):198–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ehrlich CE, Young PC, Cleary RE. Cytoplasmic progesterone and estradiol receptors in normal, hyperplastic, and carcinomatous endometria: therapeutic implications. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981;141(5):539–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ehrlich CE, Young PC, Stehman FB, Sutton GP, Alford WM. Steroid receptors and clinical outcome in patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;158(4):796–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Creasman WT, Soper JT, McCarty Jr KS, McCarty Sr KS, Hinshaw W, Clarke-Pearson DL. Influence of cytoplasmic steroid receptor content on prognosis of early stage endometrial carcinoma. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;151(7):922–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Benraad TJ, Friberg LG, Koenders AJ, Kullander S. Do estrogen and progesterone receptors (E2R and PR) in metastasizing endometrial cancers predict the response to gestagen therapy? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1980;59(2):155–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Creasman WT, McCarty Sr KS, Barton TK, McCarty Jr KS. Clinical correlates of estrogen- and progesterone-binding proteins in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;55(3):363–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Martin PM, Rolland PH, Gammerre M, Serment H, Toga M. Estradiol and progesterone receptors in normal and neoplastic endometrium: correlations between receptors, histopathological examinations and clinical responses under progestin therapy. Inter J Can. 1979;23(3):321–9.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kauppila A, Kujansuu E, Vihko R. Cytosol estrogen and progestin receptors in endometrial carcinoma of patients treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and progestin. Clinical correlates. Cancer. 1982;50(10):2157–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Smid-Koopman E, Kuhne LC, Hanekamp EE, et al. Progesterone-induced inhibition of growth and differential regulation of gene expression in PRA- and/or PRB-expressing endometrial cancer cell lines. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2005;12(4):285–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hanekamp EE, Gielen SC, Smid-Koopman E, et al. Consequences of loss of progesterone receptor expression in development of invasive endometrial cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(11):4190–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Smid-Koopman E, Blok LJ, Kuhne LC, et al. Distinct functional differences of human progesterone receptors A and B on gene expression and growth regulation in two endometrial carcinoma cell lines. J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2003;10(1):49–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Miyamoto T, Watanabe J, Hata H, et al. Significance of progesterone receptor-A and -B expressions in endometrial adenocarcinoma. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;92(3):111–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Conneely OM. Perspective: female steroid hormone action. Endocrinology. 2001;142(6):2194–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Conneely OM, Lydon JP. Progesterone receptors in reproduction: functional impact of the A and B isoforms. Steroids. 2000;65(10–11):571–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Conneely OM, Mulac-Jericevic B, Lydon JP, De Mayo FJ. Reproductive functions of the progesterone receptor isoforms: lessons from knock-out mice. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;179(1–2):97–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Rowan BG, O’Malley BW. Progesterone receptor coactivators. Steroids. 2000;65(10–11):545–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Spitz IM, Coelingh Bennink HJ. Progesterone receptor modulators at the start of a new millennium. Steroids. 2000;65(10–11):837–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bouchard P. Progesterone and the progesterone receptor. J Reprod Med. 1999;44(2 Suppl):153–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Arnett-Mansfield RL, deFazio A, Wain GV, et al. Relative expression of progesterone receptors A and B in endometrioid cancers of the endometrium. Cancer Res. 2001;61(11):4576–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Dai D, Kumar NS, Wolf DM, Leslie KK. Molecular tools to reestablish progestin control of endometrial cancer cell proliferation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184(5):790–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Zaino RJ, Brady WE, Todd W, et al. Histologic effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2014;33(6):543–53.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Gynecology OncologyUniversity of Virginia Medical CentreCharlottesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations