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Pharmacology of Glutamate Transport in the CNS: Substrates and Inhibitors of Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAATs) and the Glutamate/Cystine Exchanger System xc

  • Richard J. BridgesEmail author
  • Sarjubhai A. Patel
Chapter
Part of the Topics in Medicinal Chemistry book series (TMC, volume 4)

Abstract

As the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, l-glutamateparticipates not only in standard fast synaptic communication, but also contributes to higher order signalprocessing, as well as neuropathology. Given this variety of functional roles, interest has been growingas to how the extracellular concentrations of l-glutamate surroundingneurons are regulated by cellular transporter proteins. This review focuses on two prominent systems, eachof which appears capable of influencing both the signaling and pathological actions of l-glutamatewithin the CNS: the sodium-dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) and the glutamate/cystineexchanger, system x c (Sx c ). Whilethe family of EAAT subtypes limit access to glutamate receptors by rapidly and efficiently sequesteringl-glutamate in neurons and glia, Sxc provides a route for the export of glutamate from cells into the extracellular environment. The primaryintent of this work is to provide an overview of the inhibitors and substrates that have been developedto delineate the pharmacological specificity of these transport systems, as well as be exploited as probeswith which to selectively investigate function. Particular attention is paid to the development of smallmolecule templates that mimic the structural properties of the endogenous substrates, l-glutamate,l-aspartate and l-cystine andhow strategic control of functional group position and/or the introduction of lipophilic R-groups can impactmultiple aspects of the transport process, including: subtype selectivity, inhibitory potency, and substrateactivity.

Aspartate Aspartylamide Benzyloxyaspartate Pyrrolidine-dicarboxylate Uptake 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Structural and Functional Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and PharmaceuticalSciencesUniversity of MontanaMissoulaUSA

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