Advertisement

PPARγ Agonists for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Chapter
  • 3.9k Downloads
Part of the Topics in Medicinal Chemistry book series (TMC, volume 2)

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder with aging, genetic and environmental factors contributing to the development and progression of the disease. The complexity of this disease presents substantial challenges for the development of new therapeutic agents. AD is typified by pathological depositions of β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles within the diseased brain. AD has also been demonstrated to be associated with a significant microglia-mediated inflammatory component, dysregulated lipid homeostasis as well as regional deficits in glucose metabolism within the brain. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a prototypical ligand-activated nuclear receptor which coordinates lipid, glucose and energy metabolism and is found at elevated levels in the AD brain. A recently appreciated physiological function of this type of receptor is its ability to modulate inflammatory responses. Thus, PPARγ may act to modulate multiple pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to the disease and represents an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of AD.

AD Amyloid ApoE LXR PPARγ 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sundararajan S, Jiang Q, Heneka M, Landreth G (2006) Neurochem Int 49:136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Risner ME, Saunders AM, Altman JF, Ormandy GC, Craft S, Foley IM, Zvartau-Hind ME, Hosford DA, Roses AD (2006) Pharmacogenomics J 6(4):246 Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kersten S, Desvergne B, Wahli W (2000) Nature 405:421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bookout AL, Jeong Y, Downes M, Yu RT, Evans RM, Mangelsdorf DJ (2006) Cell 126:789 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lehrke M, Lazar M (2005) Cell (Cambridge) 123:993 Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Glass CK (2006) J Clin Invest 116:556 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Daynes RA, Jones DC (2002) Nat Rev Immunol 2:748 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castrillo A, Tontonoz P (2004) Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20:455 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Berger J, Moller DE (2002) Annu Rev Med 53:409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aranda A, Pascual A (2001) Physiol Rev 81:1269 Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glass CK, Rosenfeld MG (2000) Genes Dev 14:121 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Subbaramaiah K, Lin DT, Hart JC, Dannenberg AJ (2001) J Biol Chem 276:12440 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li M, Pascual G, Glass CK (2000) Mol Cell Biol 20:4699 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pascual G, Fong AL, Ogawa S, Gamliel A, Li AC, Perissi V, Rose DW, Willson TM, Rosenfeld MG, Glass CK (2005) Nature 437:759 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tanzi RE, Bertram L (2005) Cell 120:545 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sastre M, Dewachter I, Landreth GE, Willson TM, Klockgether T, van Leuven F, Heneka MT (2003) J Neurosci 23:9796 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sastre M, Dewachter I, Rossner S, Bogdanovic N, Rosen E, Borghgraef P, Evert BO, Dumitrescu-Ozimek L, Thal DR, Landreth G, Walter J, Klockgether T, van Leuven F, Heneka MT (2006) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:443 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    d'Abramo C, Massone S, Zingg JM, Pizzuti A, Marambaud P, Dalla Piccola B, Azzi A, Marinari UM, Pronzato MA, Ricciarelli R (2005) Biochem J 391:693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Camacho IE, Serneels L, Spittaels K, Merchiers P, Dominguez D, De Strooper B (2004) J Neurosci 24:10908 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wood JG, Mirra SS, Pollock NJ, Binder LI (1986) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yen SH, Dickson DW, Crowe A, Butler M, Shelanski ML (1987) Am J Pathol 126:81 Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    d'Abramo C, Ricciarelli R, Pronzato MA, Davies P (2006) J Neurochem 98:1068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Martins IJ, Hone E, Foster JK, Sunram-Lea SI, Gnjec A, Fuller SJ, Nolan D, Gandy SE, Martins RN (2006) Mol Psychiatry 11:721 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Razay G, Vreugdenhil A, Wilcock G (2007) Arch Neurol 64:93 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Panza F, Capurso C, D'Introno A, Colacicco AM, Vasquez F, Pistoia G, Capurso A, Solfrizzi V (2006) Exp Gerontol 41:805 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Notkola IL, Sulkava R, Pekkanen J, Erkinjuntti T, Ehnholm C, Kivinen P, Tuomilehto J, Nissinen A (1998) Neuroepidemiology 17:14 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wolozin B, Kellman W, Ruosseau P, Celesia GG, Siegel G (2000) Arch Neurol 57:1439 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Puglielli L, Tanzi RE, Kovacs DM (2003) Nat Neurosci 6:345 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wollmer MA, Streffer JR, Lutjohann D, Tsolaki M, Iakovidou V, Hegi T, Pasch T, Jung HH, Bergmann K, Nitsch RM, Hock C, Papassotiropoulos A (2003) Neurobiol Aging 24:421 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wahrle SE, Jiang H, Parsadanian M, Legleiter J, Han X, Fryer JD, Kowalewski T, Holtzman DM (2004) J Biol Chem 279:40987 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hirsch-Reinshagen V, Zhou S, Burgess BL, Bernier L, McIsaac SA, Chan JY, Tansley GH, Cohn JS, Hayden MR, Wellington CL (2004) J Biol Chem 279:41197 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xu Q, Bernardo A, Walker D, Kanegawa T, Mahley RW, Huang Y (2006) J Neurosci 26:4985 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bjorkhem I, Meaney S (2004) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 24(5):806 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kang DE, Saitoh T, Chen X, Xia Y, Masliah E, Hansen LA, Thomas RG, Thal LJ, Katzman R (1997) Neurology 49:56 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Baum L, Chen L, Ng HK, Chan YS, Mak YT, Woo J, Chiu HF, Pang CP (1998) Neurosci Lett 247:33 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kamboh MI, Ferrell RE, DeKosky ST (1998) Neurosci Lett 244:65 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hu CJ, Sung SM, Liu HC, Hsu WC, Lee LS, Lee CC, Tsai CH, Chang JG (2000) J Neurol Sci 181:127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Clatworthy AE, Gomez-Isla T, Rebeck GW, Wallace RB, Hyman BT (1997) Arch Neurol 54:1289 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gylys KH, Fein JA, Tan AM, Cole GM (2003) J Neurochem 84:1442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Van Uden E, Mallory M, Veinbergs I, Alford M, Rockenstein E, Masliah E (2002) J Neurosci 22:9298 Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Deane R, Wu Z, Sagare A, Davis J, Du Yan S, Hamm K, Xu F, Parisi M, LaRue B, Hu HW, Spijkers P, Guo H, Song X, Lenting PJ, Van Nostrand WE, Zlokovic BV (2004) Neuron 43:333 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Koldamova R, Staufenbiel M, Lefterov I (2005) J Biol Chem 280:43224 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hirsch-Reinshagen V, Maia LF, Burgess BL, Blain JF, Naus KE, McIsaac SA, Parkinson PF, Chan JY, Tansley GH, Hayden MR, Poirier J, Van Nostrand W, Wellington CL (2005) J Biol Chem 280:43243 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wahrle SE, Jiang H, Parsadanian M, Hartman RE, Bales KR, Paul SM, Holtzman DM (2005) J Biol Chem 280:43236 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Adighibe O, Arepalli S, Duckworth J, Hardy J, Wavrant-De Vrieze F (2006) Neurobiol Aging 27:1431 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Papassotiropoulos A, Lutjohann D, Bagli M, Locatelli S, Jessen F, Buschfort R, Ptok U, Bjorkhem I, von Bergmann K, Heun R (2002) J Psychiatr Res 36:27 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wolozin B (2003) Arch Neurol 60:16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tedde A, Rotondi M, Cellini E, Bagnoli S, Muratore L, Nacmias B, Sorbi S (2006) Neurobiol Aging 27:773 e1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ingelsson M, Jesneck J, Irizarry MC, Hyman BT, Rebeck GW (2004) Neurosci Lett 367:228 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Johansson A, Katzov H, Zetterberg H, Feuk L, Johansson B, Bogdanovic N, Andreasen N, Lenhard B, Brookes AJ, Pedersen NL, Blennow K, Prince JA (2004) Hum Genet 114:581 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lehmann JM, Kliewer SA, Moore LB, Smith-Oliver TA, Oliver BB, Su JL, Sundseth SS, Winegar DA, Blanchard DE, Spencer TA, Willson TM (1997) J Biol Chem 272:3137 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Saito Y, Suzuki K, Nanba E, Yamamoto T, Ohno K, Murayama S (2002) Ann Neurol 52:351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jin LW, Maezawa I, Vincent I, Bird T (2004) Am J Pathol 164:975 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zerbinatti CV, Wahrle SE, Kim H, Cam JA, Bales K, Paul SM, Holtzman DM, Bu G (2006) J Biol Chem 281:36180 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nixon RA (2004) Am J Pathol 164:757 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Puglielli L, Konopka G, Pack-Chung E, Ingano LA, Berezovska O, Hyman BT, Chang TY, Tanzi RE, Kovacs DM (2001) Nat Cell Biol 3:905 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hutter-Paier B, Huttunen HJ, Puglielli L, Eckman CB, Kim DY, Hofmeister A, Moir RD, Domnitz SB, Frosch MP, Windisch M, Kovacs DM (2004) Neuron 44:227 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Barroso I, Gurnell M, Crowley VE, Agostini M, Schwabe JW, Soos MA, Maslen GL, Williams TD, Lewis H, Schafer AJ, Chatterjee VK, O'Rahilly S (1999) Nature 402:880 Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fitzgerald ML, Moore KJ, Freeman MW (2002) J Mol Med 80:271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Calkin AC, Forbes JM, Smith CM, Lassila M, Cooper ME, Jandeleit-Dahm KA, Allen TJ (2005) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:1903 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Llaverias G, Rebollo A, Pou J, Vazquez-Carrera M, Sanchez RM, Laguna JC, Alegret M (2006) Biochem Pharmacol 71:605 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yue L, Rasouli N, Ranganathan G, Kern PA, Mazzone T (2004) J Biol Chem 279:47626 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Strum JC, Shehee R, Virley D, Richardson J, Mattie M, Selley P, Ghosh S, Nock C, Saunders A, Roses A (2007) J Alzheimers Dis 11:45 Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Piraino G, Cook JA, O'Connor M, Hake PW, Burroughs TJ, Teti D, Zingarelli B (2006) Shock 26:146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Katzov H, Chalmers K, Palmgren J, Andreasen N, Johansson B, Cairns NJ, Gatz M, Wilcock GK, Love S, Pedersen NL, Brookes AJ, Blennow K, Kehoe PG, Prince JA (2004) Hum Mutat 23:358 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Li Y, Chu LW, Chen YQ, Cheung BM, Leung RY, Yik PY, Ng KM, Mak W, Jin DY, St George-Hyslop P, Song YQ (2006) Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 22:399 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Li Y, Tacey K, Doil L, van Luchene R, Garcia V, Rowland C, Schrodi S, Leong D, Lau K, Catanese J, Sninsky J, Nowotny P, Holmans P, Hardy J, Powell J, Lovestone S, Thal L, Owen M, Williams J, Goate A, Grupe A (2004) Neurosci Lett 366:268 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Akiyama H, Barger S, Barnum S, Bradt B, Bauer J, Cole GM, Cooper NR, Eikelenboom P, Emmerling M, Fiebich BL, Finch CE, Frautschy S, Griffin WS, Hampel H, Hull M, Landreth G, Lue L, Mrak R, Mackenzie IR, McGeer PL, O'Banion MK, Pachter J, Pasinetti G, Plata-Salaman C, Rogers J, Rydel R, Shen Y, Streit W, Strohmeyer R, Tooyoma I, Van Muiswinkel FL, Veerhuis R, Walker D, Webster S, Wegrzyniak B, Wenk G, Wyss-Coray T (2000) Neurobiol Aging 21:383 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rogers J, Webster S, Lue LF, Brachova L, Civin WH, Emmerling M, Shivers B, Walker D, McGeer P (1996) Neurobiol Aging 17:681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Rogers J, Shen Y (2000) Ann NY Acad Sci 924:132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Colangelo V, Schurr J, Ball MJ, Pelaez RP, Bazan NG, Lukiw WJ (2002) J Neurosci Res 70:462 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wyss-Coray T (2006) Nat Med 12:1005 Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wyss-Coray T, Mucke L (2002) Neuron 35:419 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cooper NR, Bradt BM, O'Barr S, Yu JX (2000) Immunol Res 21:159 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bamberger ME, Harris ME, McDonald DR, Husemann J, Landreth GE (2003) J Neurosci 23:2665 Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Johnstone M, Gearing AJ, Miller KM (1999) J Neuroimmunol 93:182 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Akama KT, Albanese C, Pestell RG, Van Eldik LJ (1998) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:5795 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Suo Z, Tan J, Placzek A, Crawford F, Fang C, Mullan M (1998) Brain Res 807:110 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    McGeer PL, McGeer EG (1996) Ann NY Acad Sci 777:213 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Weggen S, Eriksen JL, Das P, Sagi SA, Wang R, Pietrzik CU, Findlay KA, Smith TE, Murphy MP, Bulter T, Kang DE, Marquez-Sterling N, Golde TE, Koo EH (2001) Nature 414:212 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Weggen S, Eriksen J, Sagi S, Pietrzik C, Ozols V, Fauq A, Golde T, Koo E (2003) J Biol Chem 278:31831 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Weggen S, Eriksen JL, Sagi SA, Pietrzik CU, Golde TE, Koo EH (2003) J Biol Chem 278:30748 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Eriksen J, Sagi S, Smith T, Weggen S, Das P, McLendon D, Ozols V, Jessing K, Zavitz K, Koo E, Golde T (2003) J Clin Invest 112:440 Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lehmann JM, Lenhard JM, Oliver BB, Ringold GM, Kliewer SA (1997) J Biol Chem 272:3406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Combs CK, Bates P, Karlo JC, Landreth GE (2001) Neurochem Int 39:449 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yan Q, Zhang J, Liu H, Babu-Khan S, Vassar R, Biere AL, Citron M, Landreth G (2003) J Neurosci 23:7504 Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Heneka MT, Sastre M, Dumitrescu-Ozimek L, Hanke A, Dewachter I, Kuiperi C, O'Banion K, Klockgether T, Van Leuven F, Landreth GE (2005) Brain 128:1442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bernardo A, Minghetti L (2006) Curr Pharm Des 12:93 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chawla A, Barak Y, Nagy L, Liao D, Tontonoz P, Evans RM (2001) Nat Med 7:48 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Glass CK, Ogawa S (2006) Nat Rev Immunol 6:44 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lu B, Moser AH, Shigenaga JK, Feingold KR, Grunfeld C (2006) J Lipid Res 47:2179 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mosconi L, Tsui WH, De Santi S, Li J, Rusinek H, Convit A, Li Y, Boppana M, de Leon MJ (2005) Neurology 64:1860 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Reiman EM, Chen K, Alexander GE, Caselli RJ, Bandy D, Osborne D, Saunders AM, Hardy J (2004) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:284 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Reiman EM, Caselli RJ, Chen K, Alexander GE, Bandy D, Frost J (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:3334 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Small GW, Ercoli LM, Silverman DH, Huang SC, Komo S, Bookheimer SY, Lavretsky H, Miller K, Siddarth P, Rasgon NL, Mazziotta JC, Saxena S, Wu HM, Mega MS, Cummings JL, Saunders AM, Pericak-Vance MA, Roses AD, Barrio JR, Phelps ME (2000) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:6037 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Small GW, Mazziotta JC, Collins MT, Baxter LR, Phelps ME, Mandelkern MA, Kaplan A, La Rue A, Adamson CF, Chang L et al. (1995) Jama 273:942 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Reiman EM, Chen K, Alexander GE, Caselli RJ, Bandy D, Osborne D, Saunders AM, Hardy J (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:8299 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bookheimer SY, Strojwas MH, Cohen MS, Saunders AM, Pericak-Vance MA, Mazziotta JC, Small GW (2000) N Engl J Med 343:450 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Castellani R, Hirai K, Aliev G, Drew KL, Nunomura A, Takeda A, Cash AD, Obrenovich ME, Perry G, Smith MA (2002) J Neurosci Res 70:357 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bogacka I, Xie H, Bray GA, Smith SR (2005) Diabetes 54:1392 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Handschin C, Spiegelman BM (2006) Endocr Rev 27:728 Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hondares E, Mora O, Yubero P, Rodriguez de la Concepcion M, Iglesias R, Giralt M, Villarroya F (2006) Endocrinology 147:2829 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wu Z, Puigserver P, Andersson U, Zhang C, Adelmant G, Mootha V, Troy A, Cinti S, Lowell B, Scarpulla RC, Spiegelman BM (1999) Cell 98:115 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kelly LJ, Vicario PP, Thompson GM, Candelore MR, Doebber TW, Ventre J, Wu MS, Meurer R, Forrest MJ, Conner MW, Cascieri MA, Moller DE (1998) Endocrinology 139:4920 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Puigserver P, Wu Z, Park CW, Graves R, Wright M, Spiegelman BM (1998) Cell 92:829 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Houten SM, Auwerx J (2004) Cell 119:5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mootha VK, Lindgren CM, Eriksson KF, Subramanian A, Sihag S, Lehar J, Puigserver P, Carlsson E, Ridderstrale M, Laurila E, Houstis N, Daly MJ, Patterson N, Mesirov JP, Golub TR, Tamayo P, Spiegelman B, Lander ES, Hirschhorn JN, Altshuler D, Groop LC (2003) Nat Genet 34:267 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Feinstein DL, Spagnolo A, Akar C, Weinberg G, Murphy P, Gavrilyuk V, Russo CD (2005) Biochem Pharmacol 70:177 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Roses AD, Saunders AM, Huang Y, Strum J, Weisgraber KH, Mahley RW (2007) Pharmacogenomics J 7:10 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Biessels GJ, Staekenborg S, Brunner E, Brayne C, Scheltens P (2006) Lancet Neurol 5:64 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Razay G, Wilcock GK (1994) Age Ageing 23:396 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Craft S, Asthana S, Schellenberg G, Cherrier M, Baker LD, Newcomer J, Plymate S, Latendresse S, Petrova A, Raskind M, Peskind E, Lofgreen C, Grimwood K (1999) Neuroendocrinology 70:146 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Craft S, Peskind E, Schwartz MW, Schellenberg GD, Raskind M, Porte D Jr (1998) Neurology 50:164 Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Leibson CL, Rocca WA, Hanson VA, Cha R, Kokmen E, O'Brien PC, Palumbo PJ (1997) Ann NY Acad Sci 826:422 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ott A, Stolk RP, van Harskamp F, Pols HA, Hofman A, Breteler MM (1999) Neurology 53:1937 Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Xu WL, Qiu CX, Wahlin A, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L (2004) Neurology 63:1181 Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Arvanitakis Z, Wilson RS, Bienias JL, Evans DA, Bennett DA (2004) Arch Neurol 61:661 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Peila R, Rodriguez BL, Launer LJ (2002) Diabetes 51:1256 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Haan MN, Mungas DM, Gonzalez HM, Ortiz TA, Acharya A, Jagust WJ (2003) J Am Geriatr Soc 51:169 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Frolich L, Blum-Degen D, Riederer P, Hoyer S (1999) Ann NY Acad Sci 893:290 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Messier C, Teutenberg K (2005) Neural Plast 12:311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wallum BJ, Taborsky GJ Jr, Porte D Jr, Figlewicz DP, Jacobson L, Beard JC, Ward WK, Dorsa D (1987) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64:190 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Craft S, Asthana S, Cook DG, Baker LD, Cherrier M, Purganan K, Wait C, Petrova A, Latendresse S, Watson GS, Newcomer JW, Schellenberg GD, Krohn AJ (2003) Psychoneuroendocrinology 28:809 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Craft S (2006) Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 20:298 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ho L, Qin W, Pompl PN, Xiang Z, Wang J, Zhao Z, Peng Y, Cambareri G, Rocher A, Mobbs CV, Hof PR, Pasinetti GM (2004) FASEB J 18:902 Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Fishel MA, Watson GS, Montine TJ, Wang Q, Green PS, Kulstad JJ, Cook DG, Peskind ER, Baker LD, Goldgaber D, Nie W, Asthana S, Plymate SR, Schwartz MW, Craft S (2005) Arch Neurol 62:1539 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Eckman EA, Eckman CB (2005) Biochem Soc Trans 33:1101 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Leissring MA (2006) Curr Alzheimer Res 3:431 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cook DG, Leverenz JB, McMillan PJ, Kulstad JJ, Ericksen S, Roth RA, Schellenberg GD, Jin LW, Kovacina KS, Craft S (2003) Am J Pathol 162:313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Farris W, Mansourian S, Leissring MA, Eckman EA, Bertram L, Eckman CB, Tanzi RE, Selkoe DJ (2004) Am J Pathol 164:1425 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Farris W, Leissring MA, Hemming ML, Chang AY, Selkoe DJ (2005) Biochemistry 44:6513 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Farris W, Mansourian S, Chang Y, Lindsley L, Eckman EA, Frosch MP, Eckman CB, Tanzi RE, Selkoe DJ, Guenette S (2003) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:4162 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Pedersen WA, McMillan PJ, Kulstad JJ, Leverenz JB, Craft S, Haynatzki GR (2006) Exp Neurol 199:265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Willson TM, Lambert MH, Kliewer SA (2001) Annu Rev Biochem 70:341 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Picard F, Auwerx J (2002) Annu Rev Nutr 22:167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    El Messari S, Ait-Ikhlef A, Ambroise DH, Penicaud L, Arluison M (2002) J Chem Neuroanat 24:225 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Vannucci SJ, Koehler-Stec EM, Li K, Reynolds TH, Clark R, Simpson IA (1998) Brain Res 797:1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Alquier T, Leloup C, Arnaud E, Magnan C, Penicaud L (2001) Neurosci Lett 308:75 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sentinelli F, Filippi E, Cavallo MG, Romeo S, Fanelli M, Baroni MG (2006) J Endocrinol 188:271 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Tamori Y, Masugi J, Nishino N, Kasuga M (2002) Diabetes 51:2045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Waki H, Terauchi Y, Kubota N, Hara K, Mori Y, Ide T, Murakami K, Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Ezaki O, Akanuma Y, Gavrilova O, Vinson C, Reitman ML, Kagechika H, Shudo K, Yoda M, Nakano Y, Tobe K, Nagai R, Kimura S, Tomita M, Froguel P, Kadowaki T (2001) Nat Med 7:941 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Samaha FF, Szapary PO, Iqbal N, Williams MM, Bloedon LT, Kochar A, Wolfe ML, Rader DJ (2006) Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:624 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Yin WH, Jen HL, Chen JW, Lin SJ, Young MS (2006) Diabetes Metab 32:229 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Maeda N, Takahashi M, Funahashi T, Kihara S, Nishizawa H, Kishida K, Nagaretani H, Matsuda M, Komuro R, Ouchi N, Kuriyama H, Hotta K, Nakamura T, Shimomura I, Matsuzawa Y (2001) Diabetes 50:2094 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Chatterjee VK (2003) Horm Res 60(3):51 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Maeshiba Y, Kiyota Y, Yamashita K, Yoshimura Y, Motohashi M, Tanayama S (1997) Arzneimittelforschung 47:29 Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lim GP, Yang F, Chu T, Chen P, Beech W, Teter B, Tran T, Ubeda O, Ashe KH, Frautschy SA, Cole GM (2000) J Neurosci 20:5709 Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Heneka M, Sastre M, Dumitrescu-Ozimek L, Hanke A, Dewachter I, Kuiperi C, O'Banion MK, Klockgether T, Van Leuven F, Landreth G (2005) Brain 128:1442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Pedersen WA, Flynn ER (2004) Neurobiol Dis 17:500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Pedersen W, McMillan P, Kulstad J, Leverenz J, Craft S, Haynatzki G (2006) Exp Neurol 199:265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Andrews R, Walker B (1999) Clinic Sci 96:513 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Andrews RC, Herlihy O, Livingstone DE, Andrew R, Walker BR (2002) J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:5587 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Pomara N, Greenberg WM, Branford MD, Doraiswamy PM (2003) Psychopharmacol Bull 37:120 Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Green KN, Billings LM, Roozendaal B, McGaugh JL, LaFerla FM (2006) J Neurosci 26:9047 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Kulstad JJ, McMillan PJ, Leverenz JB, Cook DG, Green PS, Peskind ER, Wilkinson CW, Farris W, Mehta PD, Craft S (2005) J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 64:139 Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Watson GS, Cholerton BA, Reger MA, Baker LD, Plymate SR, Asthana S, Fishel MA, Kulstad JJ, Green PS, Cook DG, Kahn SE, Keeling ML, Craft S (2005) Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 13:950 Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Geldmacher D, Fritsch T, McClendon M, Lerner A, Landreth G (2006) Int Conf Alz Dis Rel Dementias, Madrid, July, 2006 Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Waugh J, Keating GM, Plosker GL, Easthope S, Robinson DM (2006) Drugs 66:85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Kuusisto J, Koivisto K, Mykkanen L, Helkala EL, Vanhanen M, Hanninen T, Kervinen K, Kesaniemi YA, Riekkinen PJ, Laakso M (1997) Br Med J 315:1045 Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Craft S, Asthana S, Schellenberg G, Baker L, Cherrier M, Boyt AA, Martins RN, Raskind M, Peskind E, Plymate S (2000) Ann NY Acad Sci 903:222 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Alzheimer Research Laboratory, Department of NeurosciencesCase Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations