The Embryo Surrounding Region
- 1k Downloads
There is converging evidence in maize, wheat, barley, Arabidopsis and other species that the endosperm in proximity of the embryo is cytologically different from the remaining endosperm. Gene expression restricted to this embryo surrounding region (ESR) reinforces the notion of a specialized endosperm domain at least in maize and Arabidopsis. The ESR is a dynamic structure that is set apart prior to cellularisation and starts to disappear with the onset of reserve accumulation in the developing seed. During later developmental stages it is frequently succeeded by a liquid filled space around the embryo. While the cytological characteristics of the regions surrounding the embryo are quite similar between the species analyzed, their functional equivalence has not yet been established. Possible functions of the ESR include nutrition or defense of the embryo as well as signaling between the embryo and the endosperm.
KeywordsEndosperm Development Globular Embryo Sucrose Transporter Starchy Endosperm Maize Endosperm
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Boisnard-Lorig C, Colon-Carmona A, Bauch M, Hodge S, Doerner P, Bancharel E, Dumas C, Haseloff J, Berger F (2001) Dynamic analyses of the expression of the HISTONE::YFP fusion protein in arabidopsis show that syncytial endosperm is divided in mitotic domains. Plant Cell 13:495–509 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chourey PS, Jain M, Li QB, Carlson SJ (2005) Genetic control of cell wall invertases in developing endosperm of maize. Planta 1–9 Google Scholar
- Hong LS Kitano H, Satoh H, Nagato Y (1996) How is embryo size genetically regulated in rice? Dev Suppl 122:2051–2058 Google Scholar
- Kiesselbach TA (1949) Reproduction and kernel development in the structure and reproduction of corn. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, pp 63–83 Google Scholar
- Magnard JL, Lehouque G, Massonneau A, Frangne N, Heckel T, Gutierrez-Marcos JF, Perez P, Dumas C, Rogowsky PM (2003) ZmEBE genes show a novel, continuous expression pattern in the central cell before fertilization and in specific domains of the resulting endosperm after fertilization. Plant Mol Biol 53:821–836 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mansfield SG, Briarty LG (1990a) Development of the free-nuclear endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Arab Inf Serv 27:53–64 Google Scholar
- Mansfield SG, Briarty LG (1990b) Endosperm cellularization in Arabidopsis thaliana (L). Arab Inf Serv 27:53–64 Google Scholar
- Randolph LF (1936) Developmental morphology of the caryopsis in maize. J Agric Res 53:882–916 Google Scholar
- Sevilla-Lecoq S, Deguerry F, Matthys-Rochon E, Perez P, Dumas C, Rogowsky PM (2003) Analysis of ZmAE3 upstream sequences in maize endosperm and androgenic embryos. Sex Plant Reprod 16:1–8 Google Scholar
- van Lammeren AAM (1987) Embryogenesis in Zea mays L A structural approach to maize caryopsis development in vivo and in vitro. Agricultural University Wageningen, Wageningen Google Scholar
- van Lammeren AAM, Kieft H, Ma F, van Veenendaal WLH (1996) Light microscopical study of endosperm formation in Brassica napus L. Acta Soc Bot Pol 65:267–272 Google Scholar