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Cyclic and Linear Siloxanes in Indoor Environments: Occurrence and Human Exposure

  • A. CincinelliEmail author
  • T. Martellini
  • R. Scodellini
  • C. Scopetani
  • C. Guerranti
  • A. Katsoyiannis
Chapter
  • 22 Downloads
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 89)

Abstract

Methylsiloxanes (MSs) are an important class of additive chemicals that due to their physicochemical properties have been broadly used in several industrial applications and consumer products. The purpose of this chapter is to provide a literature review on the current state of knowledge on the occurrence and distribution of MSs in air samples from different indoor environments, including, for example, residential houses, offices, public buildings, cars, industries or hair salons. Literature studies on the levels of cyclic and linear siloxanes in indoor dust, which is a major source of MS due their particle-binding affinity, are discussed. A wide range of MS concentrations in air and dust samples has been reported together with an evident different level in indoor air samples from building of different classification. Among cyclic methylsiloxanes, D5 was usually the dominant congener in the investigated samples. In general, the levels from industrial facilities were one or more orders of magnitude higher than those in residential buildings. The mean inhalation exposure doses to total siloxanes for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers and adults are also presented. Recent investigations on human exposure to MSs through dust ingestion were also included.

Keywords

Bioaccumulative Transdermal permeation Endocrine disruptors Immunologic responses Ubiquitous Particle-binding affinity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cincinelli
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • T. Martellini
    • 3
  • R. Scodellini
    • 3
  • C. Scopetani
    • 3
  • C. Guerranti
    • 2
  • A. Katsoyiannis
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry “Ugo Schiff”University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Consorzio Interuniversitario per lo Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase (CSGI)University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  4. 4.Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) at FRAM – High North Research Centre on Climate and the EnvironmentTromsøNorway

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