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Fate of Volatile Methylsiloxanes in Wastewater Treatment Plants

  • De-Gao Wang
  • Mehran AlaeeEmail author
Chapter
  • 51 Downloads
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 89)

Abstract

Concentration, distribution, fate, removal efficiencies, daily and seasonal variations of volatile methylsiloxanes (VMS) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were reviewed in this chapter. Purge-and-trap, headspace, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-solid extraction, membrane-assisted solvent extraction, and modified QuEChERS methods have been developed to analyze of VMS in samples from WWTPs. The different consumption quantities of commercial products containing siloxanes result in the difference of concentrations and proportion of VMS in the world. Daily fluctuations of VMS concentrations in water usage induce in flow variation to WWTP and VMS show seasonal variation in the WWTPs with different types of processes. In cold seasons, VMS prefer to stay in water phase rather than air or sludge because the air/water and organic carbon/water partition coefficients decrease with temperature. Although most WWTP remove siloxanes efficiently, long-term environmental monitoring of VMS is necessary in certain environments, considering the potential of VMS to bioaccumulate in biota and its toxicity to sensitive aquatic organisms.

Keywords

Removal efficiencies Seasonal variation Siloxanes Temperature-dependent WWTP 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringDalian Maritime UniversityDalianP. R. China
  2. 2.Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment and Climate Change CanadaBurlingtonCanada

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