Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 82)


Part II contains the data obtained over continuous 15-year research of modern sedimentation in the White Sea. New data on sedimentation processes, starting from the surface water layer to the bottom sediments, have been obtained. These processes are studied from the viewpoints of the Earth Science’s specialists. Geologists and geophysicists have described the Holocene development history and revealed a three-member structure of the Quaternary cover. Sedimentologists evidenced a major contribution of dispersed sedimentary matter in the form of suspended particulate matter, sediment-laden sea ice and snow, and vertical fluxes of settling particles into the formation of sedimentary cover. Biostratigraphs have revealed a relationship between environmental parameters and abundance and species composition of microalgae associations. Mineralogists have investigated the main mineral phases of sedimentary matter at different stages of sediment formation. Geochemists have cleared out the specific character of diagenetic processes; accumulation of heavy metal, including mercury; as well as aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of such subarctic sea as the White Sea is.


Biogeochemistry Bottom sediments Development history Particle fluxes Suspended particulate matter White Sea 



The research results of Part II were obtained in the framework of the state assignment of FASO Russia (theme No. 0149-2018-0016). Proceedings of data obtained earlier were summarized with support of Russian Scientific Foundation, project No. 14-27-00114-P.


  1. 1.
    Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) (2012) The White Sea system. Vol II. Water column and interacting with it atmosphere, cryosphere, river runoff and biosphere. Scientific World, Moscow, 783 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) (2013) The White Sea system. Vol III. Dispersed sedimentary matter in hydrosphere, microbial processes and water pollution. Scientific World, Moscow, 665 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) (2017) White Sea system. Vol IV. The processes of sedimentation, geology and history. Scientific World, Moscow, 1028 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lisitzin AP (2002) Sea-ice and iceberg sedimentation in the ocean: recent and past. Springer, Berlin, 543 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lisitsyn AP (1994) The marginal filter of the ocean. Oceanology 34(5):671–682Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lisitsyn AP (2014) Modern conceptions of sediment formation in the oceans and seas. Ocean as a natural recorder of geospheres’ interaction. In: Lobkovsky LI, Nigmatulin RI (eds) World Ocean: physics, chemistry and biology of the ocean, vol 2. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 331–571 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lisitsyn AP (1996) Oceanic sedimentation: lithology and geochemistry. American Geophys Union, Washington, DC 390 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shevchenko VP (2003) The influence of aerosols on the oceanic sedimentation and environmental conditions in the Arctic. Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresfor 464:1–149Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lisitsyn AP, Novigatsky AN, Klyuvitkin AA (2015) Seasonal variation of fluxes of dispersed sedimentary matter in the White Sea (Arctic ocean basin). Dokl Earth Sci 465(1):1182–1186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vernadsky VI (1923) The living matter and marine chemistry. Sci Chem Technol Publ, Saint-Petersburg, 241 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kravchishina MD (2009) Suspended particulate matter of the White Sea and its grain-size. Scientific World, Moscow, 263 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kravchishina M, Klyuvitkin A, Filippov A, Novigatsky A, Politova N, Shevchenko V, Lisitsyn A (2014) Suspended particulate matter in the White Sea: the results of long-term interdisciplinary research. Complex interfaces under change: sea – river – groundwater – lake. IAHS Publ. 365, pp 35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lisitsyn AP, Kravchishina MD, Kopelevich OV, Burenkov VI, Shevchenko VP, Vazyulya SV, Klyuvitkin AA, Novigatskii AN, Politova NV, Filippov AS, Sheberstov SV (2013) Spatial and temporal variability in suspended particulate matter concentration within the active layer of the White Sea. Dokl Earth Sci 453(2):1228–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Burenkov VI, Vazyulya SV, Kopelevich OV, Shebertov SV (2011) Space-time variability of suspended matter in the White Sea derived from satellite ocean color data. Proceedings of VI international conference current problems in optics of natural waters. Nauka, St. Petersburg, pp 143–146Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kopelevich OV, Vazyulya SV, Saling IV, Sheberstov SV, Burenkov VI (2015) Electronic atlas “biooptical characteristics of the Russian seas from satellite ocean color data of 1998–2014”. Mod Probl Rem Sens Earth Space 12(6):99–110 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Novigatsky AN, Lisitsyn AP, Shevchenko VP, Kluvitkin AA, Kravchishina MD, Filippov AS, Politova NV (2013) Study of vertical fluxes of sedimentary matter by use of automatic deep-sea sediment observatories in the White Sea. In: sedimentary basins, sedimentation and post-sedimentation processes in geological history. Proceedings of VII all-Russian lithological conference (Novosibirsk, 28–31 October 2013), vol II. SB RAS, Novosibirsk, pp 317–321 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Novigatsky AN, Klyuvitkin AA, Lisitsyn AP (2018) Vertical fluxes of dispersed sedimentary matter, absolute masses of the bottom sediments, and rates of modern sedimentation. In: Lisitsyn AP, Demina LL (eds) Sedimentation processes in the White Sea: the White Sea environment part II, Hdb Env Chem, Springer, doi: Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kravchishina MD, Lisitzin AP (2011) Grain-size composition of the suspended particulate matter in the marginal filter of the Severnaya Dvina River. Oceanology 51(1):89–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lisitsyn AP, Vinogradov ME (1983) Global regularities of living matter and biogeochemistry of particulate matter and bottom sediments in the ocean. In: Lisitsyn AP, Monin AS (eds) Biogeochemistry of the ocean. Nauka, Moscow, pp 112–126 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kravchishina M, Burenkov VI, Kopelevich OV, Sheberstov SV, Vazyulya SV, Lisitsyn AP (2013) New data on the spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll a concentration in the White Sea. Dokl Earth Sci 448(1):120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kravchishina MD, Mitzkevich IN, Veslopolova AF, Shevchenko VP, Lisitsyn AP (2008) Relationship between the suspended particulate matter and microorganisms in the White Sea waters. Oceanology 48(6):837–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Belyaev NA (2015) Organic matter and hydrocarbon markers of the White Sea. Abstract PhD thesis, IO RAS, Moscow, 25 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Savvichev AS, Rusanov II, Zakharova EE, Veslopolova EF, Mitskevich IN, Kravchishina MD, Ivanov MV (2008) Microbial processes of the carbon and sulfur cycles in the White Sea. Microbiology 77(6):823–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lein AY, Novichkova YA, Rybalko AY, Ivanov MV (2013) Carbon isotope composition of organic matter in Holocene sediments of the White Sea as one of the indicators of sedimentation conditions. Dokl Eart Sci 452(2):1056–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Savvichev AS, Rusanov II, Yusupov SK, Pimenov NV, Lein AY, Ivanov MV (2004) The biogeochemical cycle of methane in the coastal zone and littoral of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. Microbiology 73(4):540–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lein AY, Ivanov MV (2009) Biogeochemical cycle of methane in the ocean. Nauka, Moscow, 464 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lein AY, Vogt P, Crane K, Egorov AV, Pimenov NV, Savvichev AS, Ivanov MV (1998) Geochemical features of gas-bearing (CH4) deposits of a submarine mud volcano in the Norwegian Sea. Geochem Int 36(3):190–208Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rybalko AYe, Lisitsin AP, Shevchenko VP, Zhuravlyov VA, Varlamova AA, Nikitin MA (2009) New data on geology of the White Sea quaternary. In: GG Matishov (ed) Geology, geography, and ecology of the oceans. Publ House UNSC RAS, Rostov-on-Don, 186 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rybalko AYe, Spiridonov MA, Spiridonova, YeA, Moskalenko PE (1987) Quarternary deposits of Onega Bay and main features of its paleogeography in the Pleistocene and Holocene. In: Spiridonov MA, Moskalenko PE (eds) Integral marine G&G studies in the glacial shelf interior seas. Publ House VSEGEI, Leningrad, pp 38–52 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rybalko AY, Fyodorova NK, Nikonov KA, Klimov AI (2007) Current state and evolution of the shoreface of Yagry Island (in the Severnaya Dvina delta) in connection with the shoreline reinforcement. In: Geology of the seas and oceans. Materials of the XVII Int. Scientific conference, vol 2. GEOS, Moscow, pp 282–283 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dara OM, Mamochkina AI (2017) Clay minerals in bottom sediments of the Eurasian Arctic Seas. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) White Sea system. Vol IV. The processes of sedimentation, geology and history. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 394–432 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mamochkina AI, Dara OM (2017) Mineral composition of bottom sediments of the White Sea. In: Lisitsyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) White Sea system. Vol IV. The processes of sedimentation, geology and history. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 365–393 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Novichkova EA, Polyakova YI (2007) Dinoflagellate cysts in the surface sediments of the White Sea. Oceanology 47(5):660–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Novichkova EA (2008) Postglacial history of the White Sea based on aquatic and terrestrial palynomorph investigations. PhD thesis. MSU, 262 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Polyakova YI, Novichkova YA, Klyuvitkina TS (2017) Diatoms and palynomorphs in surface sediments of the Arctic seas and their significance for paleooceanological studies at high latitudes. In: Lisitsyn AP, Shevchenko VP, Vorontsova VG (eds) The White Sea system. Vol IV. The processes of sedimentation, geology and history. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 796–859 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fedorov YA, Ovsepyan AE, Korobov VB (2010) Peculiarities of Hg distribution, migration, and transformation in the estuarine area of the Severnaya Dvina River. Russ Meteorol Hydrol 35(4):289–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fitzgerald WF, Lamborg CH (2003) Treatise on geochemistry. The crust, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, NY, pp 107–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fedorov YA, Ovsepyan AE (2006) Hg and it’s connection with physicochemical water parameters (on the example of the rivers of the northern ETR). Univ News North-Caucasian Region Nat Sci Ser 2:82–89 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fedorov YA, Garkusha DN, Ovsepyan AE et al (2005) Main results of expeditionary research on the Severnaya Dvina and the Dvina Bay of the White Sea. University news. North-Caucasian region. Nat Sci Ser 3:95–100 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ovsepyan AE, Fedorov YA (2011) Hg in the mouth area of the northern Dvina River. ZAO Rostizdat, Rostov-on-Don 198 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Skibinskii LE (2005) The role of geochemical barriers and geochemical barrier zones in forming of the hydrochemical regime of coastal waters of Arctic Seas. In: Proceedings of the XII congress of Russian Geographical Society, vol 5. pp 148–155 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fedorov YA, Ovsepyan AE, Korobov VB et al (2010) Bottom sediments and their role in surface water pollution with Hg (with a special reference to the Severnaya Dvina River mouth and the Dvina Bay of the White Sea). Russ Meteorol Hydrol 35(9):611–618. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fedorov YA, Ovsepyan AE, Lisitzin AP et al (2011) Patterns of Hg distribution in bottom sediments along the Severnaya Dvina–White Sea section. Dokl Earth Sci 436(1):51–54. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fedorov YA, Ovsepyan AE (2013) Hg and its connection with physicochemical water parameters (case study of the rivers of the northern European territory of Russia). Hg: sources, applications and health impacts. Nova Science, New York, pp 155–172Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Demina LL, Levitan MA, Politova NV (2006) On occurrence forms of heavy metals in bottom sediments of the Ob and Yenisei rivers estuaries (the Kara Sea). Geochem Int 2:212–226Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Demina LL, Budko DF, Lisitsyn AP, Novigatsky AN (2018) The first data on geochemical fractions of heavy metals in vertical fluxes of dispersed sedimentary matter in the White Sea. Doklady Earth Sci 480(Part 1):689–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Demina LL, Budko DF, Alekseeva TN, Novigatsky AN et al (2017) Features of the distribution of trace elements in the early diagenesis of the White Sea sediments. Geochem Int 55(1):144–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Budko DF, Demina LL, Lisitsyn AP et al (2017) Occurrence forms heavy metals in modern bottom sediments of the White and Barents Seas. Doklady Earth Sci 474(Part 1):552–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Nemirovskaya IA, Leonov AV (2011) Petroleum hydrocarbons in the waters of major tributaries of the White Sea and its water areas: a review of available information. Water Resour 38(3):324–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Nemirovskaya IA, Trubkin IP (2013) Anthropogenic and natural hydrocarbons in water and suspended arctic seas. In: Lisitsyn AP (ed) The White Sea system, vol 3, Scientific World, Moscow, pp 438–470 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Nemirovskaya IA (2013) Oil in the ocean (pollution and natural flows), Scientific World, Moscow, 432 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Agatova AI, Lapina NM, Torgunova NI (2012) Organic substance of the White Sea. In: Lisitzyn AP, Nemirovskaya IA (eds) The White Sea system, vol 2. Scientific World, Moscow, pp 492–548 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Savinov V, Evenset A (eds) (2011) Monitoring of hazardous substances in the White Sea and Pechora Sea: harmonization with OSPAR’s Coordinated Environmental Monitoring Programme (CEMP). Akvaplan–Niva, Tromsø, 71 рpGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations