Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations for Egyptian Coastal Lakes and Wetlands: Climate Change and Biodiversity

  • Sommer Abdel-Fattah
  • Abdelazim M. NegmEmail author
  • Mohamed Ali Bek
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 72)


The Egyptian coastal lakes and wetlands play an essential role in the culture, livelihood, environment, and social foundation in Egypt. The root of this system is the Nile River and the associated Nile Delta lakes that are reservoirs of the Nile water flowing to the Mediterranean Sea. The Egyptian coastal lakes represent about 25% of the Mediterranean total wetlands. These lakes (ordered from east to west) include Bardawil, Manzala, Burullus, Edku, and Mariout. All, except Lake Mariout, are directly connected to the Mediterranean Sea. Lake Manzala, the largest of the Egyptian coastal lakes, is considered as one of the most valuable fish sources in Egypt. These coastal lakes and wetlands play an important role in the nation’s economy, not only because they produce a great amount of the nation’s fish catch but also serve as resting areas for migrating birds. The expansion of agricultural reclamation after 1950 led to an increase in the amount of agricultural drainage to reach more than 4,000 million cubic meters which caused many changes in the region. This volume “Egyptian Coastal Lakes and Wetlands: Part II – Climate Change and Biodiversity” aims to understand some of these changes through examining the impacts of climate change and environmental changes such as water quality as well as impacts to biodiversity such as zooplankton, fish, and plants. This chapter will break down these findings into the following categories (1) Climate Change and Water Quality; (2) Biodiversity of Zooplankton, Fish, and Birds; and (3) Remote Sensing Applications and Potential Restoration of Lakes.


Bardawil Biodiversity Burullus Climate change Coastal lakes Edku Manzala Mariout Modeling Remote sensing Water quality 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sommer Abdel-Fattah
    • 1
  • Abdelazim M. Negm
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mohamed Ali Bek
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt
  3. 3.Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  4. 4.School for Marine Science and TechnologyUniversity of Massachusetts DartmouthNew BedfordUSA

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