A Three-Dimensional Circulation Model of Lake Bardawil, Egypt

  • M. A. BekEmail author
  • G. W. Cowles
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 71)


Lake Bardawil is an important hypersaline lake located in Egypt on the coast of the Sini Peninsula adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea. The lake is host to several industries which provide critical contributions to the regional economy including farmed and wild-caught fisheries and salt extraction. The lake also has significant ecological importance, serving as a rest stop and overwintering location for a numerous waterfowl. To date, only limited studies of circulation and water properties have been performed leaving lake managers without the information needed to make strategic decisions needed to mitigate long-term threats to the lake stemming from regional infrastructure projects, expansion of industry, and natural processes such as inlet shoaling. The present chapter presents a numerical model of Lake Bardawil which can be used to study dynamic processes and predict the outcome of management actions. The approach predicts the three-dimensional circulation using an unstructured grid approach which enables resolution of the complex coastline and wide range of spatial scales associated with the lake. In a validation study, the model was found to reproduce the annual variation and magnitude of monthly averaged salinity at ten measurement stations but significantly overpredict salinity at the two stations in the shallow far western section of the lake. The model demonstrates that evaporation, wind forcing, and tidal exchanges all play important roles in lake forcing. The present work represents a critical step toward the longer-term goal of establishing an operational circulation model for Lake Bardawil which can be employed as a tool by managers to assist and accelerate the decision-making process.


Egypt FVCOM Lake Bardawil Numerical simulation Water hydrodynamics 



The first author would like to thank the individuals who contributed to this work, with special thanks to the Egyptian government for supporting his postdoctoral scholarship and Tanta University for the grant (TU: 03-15-01).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.School for Marine Science and TechnologyUniversity of Massachusetts DartmouthNew BedfordUSA

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