An Overview of the Egyptian Northern Coastal Lakes

  • Sameh B. El KafrawyEmail author
  • M. A. Bek
  • Abdelazim M. Negm
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 71)


Egyptian coastal lakes are valuable sources of wealth and sensitive environments. Egypt has two forms of coastal lakes, deltaic lakes such as Mariout, Edku, Burullus, and Manzala and non-deltaic lakes such as Lake Bardawil. Ramsar Convention recognized Burullus and Bardawil lakes as important wetlands, which are located in the Egyptian Mediterranean coastal area. These lakes with some attention could financially support the Egyptian government as being an economical source of huge fishing industry. Also, it could be a valuable source of jobs and food. Currently, it provides 40% of the harvested fish, and it is expected to be increased after completing the ambition new Egyptian development project. In 2017, the first phase of the largest fish farm in the Middle East is materializing on the international coastal road in the Berket Ghalioun area in the Metoubas locality, in Kafr al-Sheikh governorate (State). This project is to be built on an area spanning 2,750 feddan, costing LE 1.7 billion. Also, these valuable resources got the attention of the Egyptian government. The Egyptian Ministry of Environmental Affairs (MEnA) updated the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) for the years 2015–2030. The main goal of the new strategy is reducing the rate of wetlands loss by 50%. The Egyptian coastal lakes suffer major problems, such as degradation; habitat loss; pollution as they receive great amounts of industrial, municipal, and agricultural wastewater without treatment; and the spread of aquatic plants. Moreover, the illegal fishing practices and illegal harvesting of fish, the blockage of Boughazes, and the low awareness of fishermen are other types of challenges to be solved. Although two lakes, Burullus and Bardawil lakes, have got the attention of the government, Edku and Mariout lakes still in urgent need for an action plan toward sustainable development. An initial step toward better lake management is presented in the following chapters as it will address the lakes’ current situation and discuss how to sustain it.


Northern Egyptian Coastal lakes Bardawil Manzala Burullus Edku Mariout 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sameh B. El Kafrawy
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. A. Bek
    • 2
    • 3
  • Abdelazim M. Negm
    • 4
  1. 1.Marine Science DepartmentNational Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences (NARSS)CairoEgypt
  2. 2.Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  3. 3.School for Marine Science and TechnologyUniversity of Massachusetts DartmouthNew BedfordUSA
  4. 4.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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