Lake Manzala Characteristics and Main Challenges

  • M. A. BekEmail author
  • I. S. Lowndes
  • D. M. Hargreaves
  • A. M. Negm
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 71)


This chapter presents an extensive background on Lake Manzala, Egypt, in the form of a literature review. It covers the lake’s physical, chemical, and biological characteristics to date. In addition, the main challenges for the lake water body are land reclamation, nutrient enrichment, and pollution, especially from the Bahr El-Baqar drain. In addition, the spread of aquatic plants, such as water hyacinth, has occurred in most parts of the lake, which affects the movement of water in the lake, and hence the quality of both water and fish health. A summary of relevant research that has been conducted during the past four decades are presented. These investigations include a wide range of research investigations that have considered the chemical, physical, geological, and biological facets of the lake. In addition, the numerical models and recent studies from the literature are presented. It is concluded that a quick action for the lake remediation is initially to allow the law to take action over any type of stakeholder’s violence toward the lake. A socioeconomic study for Lake Manzala is recommended. Moreover, increased numerical modeling would provide further benefit.


Biological characteristics Chemical Lake Manzala Physical 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Bek
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • I. S. Lowndes
    • 3
  • D. M. Hargreaves
    • 3
  • A. M. Negm
    • 4
  1. 1.School for Marine Science and TechnologyUniversity of Massachusetts DartmouthNew BedfordUSA
  2. 2.Physics and Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  3. 3.Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  4. 4.Water and Water Structures Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

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