Advertisement

The Diversity of the Flora and Vegetation of Lake Skadar/Shkodra

  • Sead Hadžiablahović
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 80)

Abstract

Research on the vascular flora of the Lake Skadar basin started in the middle of the nineteenth century when the German botanist Wilhelm Ebel visited this area in 1841. Based on the available literature and our unpublished data, a total of 1,396 taxa from 131 families and 588 genera have been reported from the area of the Lake Skadar National Park. The chorological structure showed that the Mediterranean-Sub-Mediterranean (28.7%) and Eurasian (24.9%) groups dominate. A phytogeographical analysis of the biological spectrum of the vascular flora revealed that hemicryptophytes (33.6%) and therophytes (32.4%) are most numerous. One element that is characteristic of the vascular flora of Lake Skadar basin is the high percentage of endemic species including a large number of locus classicus sites. Moreover, 40 species and subspecies that are endemic, and 42 species that are subendemic in the Balkan Peninsula were recorded in the flora of the Lake Skadar area. An analysis of the vegetation of Lake Skadar revealed the presence of 134 plant communities classified in 65 alliances, 48 orders and 30 classes. There are 50 taxa of vascular plants protected at the national and international level and 23 European Natural Habitat Types (Annex I of the Habitat Directive) that exist in the area of the Lake Skadar National Park.

Keywords

Diversity Endemism Lake Skadar/Shkodra Vascular flora Vegetation 

References

  1. 1.
    Ebel W (1842) Reise in Montenegro. Monastber Verh Ges, Berlin, pp 132–141Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ebel W (1844) Zwolf Tage in Montenegro und ein Blick auf Dalmatien, Konigsberg, S. I–IV, 1–176 and I–XXXIXGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pančić J (1875) Elenchus Plantarum vascularium quas aestate a 1873 in Crna Gora. Belgradi, pp 1–106Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beck G, Szyszyłowcz I (1888) Plantae à [sic] Dre Ign. Szyszyłowicz in Itinere per Cernagoram et in Albania adjacente anno 1886 lectae. Universitatis Jagellonicae, CracoviaeGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Horák B (1900) Zweiter Beitrag zur Flora Montenegro’s. Osterr Bot Zeitschr 50:156–164. 208–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baldacci A (1892) Altre notizie intorno alla flora del Montenegro. Malpighia 6:6–123. GenovaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baldacci A (1894) Contributo alla conoscenza della flora dalmata, montenegrina, albanese, epirota e greca. Nuovo Gior Not Ital (Nuova serie) 1(2):90–103Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rohlena J (1902) Erster Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro. Sitz-Ber Böhm Ges Wisss Prag, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rohlena J (1902) Zweiter Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro. Sitz-Ber Böhm Ges Wiss Prag, pp 1–37Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rohlena J (1903) Dritter Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro. Sitz-Ber Böhm Ges Wiss Prag, pp 1–71Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rohlena J (1904) Vierter Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro. Sitz-Ber Böhm Ges Wiss Prag 38:1–208Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rohlena J (1906) Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro (Originaldiagnosen). Feddes Reppert 3(36/37):145–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rohlena J (1912) Fünfter Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro. Sitz-Ber Böhm Ges Wiss Prag, pp 1–143Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rohlena J (1931–32) Achter Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro. Sitz-Ber Böhm Ges Wiss Prag, Tr II 35:1–29Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rohlena J (1933–34) Neunter Beitrag zur Flora von Montenegro. Sitz-Ber Böhm Ges Wiss, Prag, pp 1–20Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rohlena J (1941–42) Conspectus florae Montenegrinae. Preslia, XX-XXI. VČBS Praha, pp 1–505Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beck G (1901) Die Vegetationsverhältnisse illyrischer Länder. W. Engelmann, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Adamović L (1913) Građa za floru Kraljevine Crne Gore. Rad JAZU (Zagreb) 195:1–96Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Janchen E (1919) Beitrag zur Floristik von Ost-Montenegro. Österr Bot Zeitschr 68(5–7):77–98. 166–179, 254–286, 327–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cufodontis G (1936) Revisione monografica della Linaria appartenenti alla sez. Cymbalaria Chaw. Arch Bot (Forli) 12:54–81. 135–158, 233–254Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cufodontis G (1947) Die Gattung Cymbalaria Hill. Nachträge und Zusammenfassung. Bot Not (Lund) 107:135–156Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Černjavski P, Grebenščikov O, Pavlović Z (1949) O vegetaciji i flori Skadarskog područja. Glasnik Prirodnjačkog muzeja, Ser B, knj 1–2:5–91Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lakušić R, Pavlović D (1976) Vegetacija Skadarskog jezera. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir, Titograd 9:45–50Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lakušić R, Pavlović D (1981) Association of Lake Skadar aquatic vegetation. In: Beeton AM, Karaman SG (eds) The biota and limnology of Lake Skadar. University Veljko Vlahović, Institute of Biological and Medicine Research Titograd, Montenegro, pp 125–133Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lakušić R (1983) Ekosistemi Skadarskog jezera i njegove okoline. In: Ivanović B (ed) Skadarsko jezero, radovi sa simpozijuma CANU, Naučni skupovi, Titograd, knj, vol 9, pp 101–112Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hadžiablahović S (2015) The pattens of diversity of Flora and vegetation of Skadar Lake in Montenegro. Disertation, Faculty of Sciences, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina (in Bosnian)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pantocsek J (1874) Adnotationes ad floram et faunam Hercegovinae, Crnagorae et Dalmatiae. Verh Verein Naturk (Presburg) 2:1–143Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gross L, Kneucker A (1902) Unsere Reise nach Istrien, Dalmatien, Montenegro, der Herzegovina und Bosnien im Juli und August 1900. Algem Bot Zeitschr, pp 151–153Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    von Hayek A (1917) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Flora des albanisch-montenegrinischen Grenzgebietes. Akad Wiss Math-Nat Kl 94:127–210Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Košanin N (1929) Die Verbreitung der Castanea sativa im Königreiche SHS. Bull Inst Bot Univ Beograd 1(2):191–198Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Černjavski P (1931) Rezultati analize polena u mulju Skadarskog jezera. (Die resultate der Pollenanalyse im Schlamme des Skutarisees). Glasn Skop Nauč Društva 9(3):67–78Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Černjavski P (1935) Pollenanalytische Untersuchungen der Gebrigsseen in der Balkangewässern. Verhandlungen der Inter Vereinigung für teoretische und angwandte Limnologie 7(1):142–153Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Janković M (1953) Značaj pedoloških uslova za razvoj plodova kod vodene biljke Trapa natans L. na Skadarskom jezeru. (Die Bedeutung der pedologischen Bedigungen fürdie Fruchtentwicklung der Wasserpflanze Trapa natans L. am Skutari-See). Arh Biol Nauka, Beograd 5(1–2):79–98Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Janković M (1957) Rezultati biometrijske analize roda Trapa L. u Jugoslaviji. (Ergebnisse der variations-statistischen Analyse der Gattung Trapa L. in Jugoslawien). Glasn Prir Muz Srpske Zem, Beograd, Ser B 10:161–218Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Janković M (1957) Übersicht der Systematik der Gatung Trapa L. in Jugoslawien. Glasn Prir Muz Srpske Zem, Beograd, Ser B 10:83–159Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Janković M (1959) Prilog pitanju sistematske vrednosti pojedinih organa oraška Trapa L. (Beitrag zur Frage ‘Sistematische Werte’ einzelner Organe del’ Wassemuss – Trapa L.) Glasn Prir Muz, Beograd, Ser B 14:185–211Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Janković M (1964) Neka razmatranja u vezi sa problemom forme ‘robur’ u okviru populacija vrste Quercus robur L. na teritoriji Jugoslavije. (Einige Betraehtungen im Beuzug auf das Problem del’ Form ‘robur’ im Rahmen del’ Populationen del’ Art Quercus robur L. auf dem Territorium Jugoslawiens). Glasn Prir Muz, Beograd, Ser B 19:95–105Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Janković M (1983) Kasaronja (Trapa L.) na Skadarskom jezeru i potreba njene zaštite. In: Ivanović B (ed) Skadarsko jezero, radovi sa simpozijuma, vol 9. CANU, Naučni skupovi Titograd, Knjiga, pp 65–270Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fukarek P (1956) Prilog poznavanju šumskih zajednica u kojima se javlja poljski jasen (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) Šum List 80(1–2):30–40Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fukarek P (1963) Rasprostranjenost i druge fitohorološke karakteristike poljskog jasena (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl). In: Naučno društvo SR Bosne i Hercegovine – Djela XX, vol 4. Sarajevo, pp 1–99Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Slavnić Ž (1958) O vegetaciji sveze Senecion fluviatilis Tx. u Jugoslaviji. (Ueber die Vegetation des Verbrandes Senecion fluviatilis Tx. in Jugoslawien). Zbor Prir Nauke Mat Srpske Novi Sad 15:153–172Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Höpflinger F (1964) Beiträge zur Flora von Skutari (Nordalbanien). Sonderabdruck aus den “Mitt des Natur, Vereines für Steierm” 94:92–107Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gigov A (1965) Kratak pregled kvartarne flore i vegetacije. Glasn Muz Lova Beograd 5:103–152Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gigov A (1984) Postglacijalni (Virm III) areal rasprostranjenja lužnjaka (Quercus robur L.) na Balkanskom poluostrvu. Radovi Akad Nauka Umjet Bosne Herceg 76(23):79–83. SarajevoGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Janković M, Bogojević R, Stefanović K (1969) Lovorova (Laurus nobilis) žbunasta vegetacija na Skadarskim ostrvima i njen značaj za problem granica rasprostranjenosti mediteranske vegetacije u našim submediteranskim područjima. In: III Kongres biologov Jugoslavije (Knjiga plenarnih referatov in povzetkov), pp 130–131Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aalto M, Hãmet-Ahti L, Rauuhijãvi R, Suominen J, Taarna K, Uotila M, Uotila P, Vitikaineno O (1972) Jugoslavian retki 11-25 VI 1971 (Botanical excursion to western Yugoslavia in 11 25 VI 1971, including a list of the collected vascular plants). Helsingin Yliopiston kasvimuseon monisteita 5:46Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Janković M, Blaženčić J (1973) Uporedna studija strukture endokarpa plodova različitih vrsta roda Trapa L. i njen ekološki značaj. Glasnik Bot zavoda i Bašte Univ u Beogradu 8(1–4):81–116Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Šmarda J (1968) Výsledky biogeografických cest do Jugoslávie v letech 1964–1967, II Výsledky botanických cest do Jugoslávie v letech 1964–1967, vol 9. Československá Akademie vĕd, Geografický ústav Brno, Zaprávy o vĕdecké činnosti, Brno, pp 1–128Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lakušić R (1969) Utricularia vulgaris L. nova karnivorna biljka u flori Crne Gore. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir – Prir Muz, Titograd 2:85–86Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pulević V (1970) Euphorbia dendroides L. i Euphorbia wulfenii Hoppe u flori Crne Gore. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir – Prir Muz, Titograd 3:67–69Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pulević V (1973) Prilog flori Crne Gore. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir – Prir Muz, Titograd 6:77–83Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pulević V (2005) Građa za vaskularnu floru Crne Gore. Republički Zavod za zaštitu prirode Crne Gore, PodgoricaGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lakušić R, Pavlović D (1973) Pet novih vrsta u flori Crne Gore. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir – Prir Muz, Titograd 6:59–61Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Blečić V, Lakušić R (1976) Prodromus biljnih zajednica Crne Gore. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir – Prir Muz 9:57–98Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pulević V, Mijušković M (1977) Korovska flora na nasipu željezničke pruge preko Skadarskog jezera. Jugosl Sav Herb Željezn, Zagreb, pp 119–124Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leute G (1978) Ergenbisse einer botanischen Sammel reise durch das Sudliche Jugoslawien im Jahre 1969. Ann Naturhistor Mus (Wien) 81:75–105Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Šilić Č (1979) Monografija rodova Satureja L., Calamintha Miller, Micromeria Bentham, Acinos Miller i Cliniopodium L. u flori Jugoslavije. Zemaljski muzej Bosne i Hercegovine – Posebno izdanje, SarajevoGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Šilić Č (1991/1992) Scilla lakusicii sp. nov. – nova vrsta genusa Scilla L. i njeni srodnički odnosi sa vrstom S. litardierei Breistr. Glasn Muz Bosne i Herceg 30:29–41Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Adams SM (1981) Aqutic macrophytes of Lake Skadar. In: Karaman SG, Beeton AM (eds) The biota and limnology of Lake Skadar. Univerzitet Veljko Vlahovic, Podgorica, pp 115–116Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ivković O (1981) Rasprostranjenje adventivne vrste Lepidium virginicum L. 1753 (Capparidales, Brassicaceae) u Jugoslaviji. Fragm Herb Jugosl, Zagreb 10(2):5–13Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ivković O (1982) Novi nalazi adventivne vrste Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. 1788 (Poales, Poaceae) u Jugoslaviji. Matica Srpska – Zbor Prir Nauka. Novi Sad 63:77–81Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lee K (1981) Initial application of a Myriophyllum production model to litoral zone of Lake Skadar. In: Beeton AM, Karaman SG (eds) The biota and limnology of Lake Skadar. University Veljko Vlahović, Institute of Biological and Medicine Research Titograd, Montenegro, pp 133–138Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ristić J, Vizi O (1981) Synoptic survey of the dominant Macrophytes in Lake Skadar. In: Beeton AM, Karaman SG (eds) The biota and limnology of Lake Skadar. University Veljko Vlahović, Institute of Biological and Medicine Research Titograd, Montenegro, pp 117–125Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Čuturilo S, Ratković B (1983) Prilog proučavanju ekoloških uslova razvoja drezge – Myriophyllum spicatum L. na Skadasrkom jezeru. In: Ivanović B (ed) Skadarsko jezero, radovi sa simpozijuma. CANU, Naučni skupovi, Knjiga, vol 9, pp 212–229Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Parolly G (1991–1992) Die Orchideenflora Montenegros. Mitt Bl Arbeitskr Heim Orch Baden-Württ 24(2):141–391Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Vizi O (1997) Neki efekti eutrofizacije Skadarskog jezera na primjeru makrofitske vegetacije. Prirodne vrijednosti i zaštita Skadarskog jezera. In: Mijušković M (ed) Prirodne vrijednosti i zaštita Skadarskog jezera, vol 44. CANU, Naučni skupovi, Knjiga, pp 299–308Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hadžiablahović S (2002) Plantago intermedia Godr. u flori Crne Gore. In: Proceeding of the 7th symposium on flora of Southeastern Serbia and neighbouring regions, Dimitrovgrad, pp 19–21Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hadžiablahović S (1994/95, 2004) The contribution to the Flora of Montenegro. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir 27–28:7–17Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hadžiablahović S (2005) Contribution to the Flora of Montenegro and FR Yugoslavia. Hacquetia 4(1):103–110Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hadžiablahović S (2006) Floristic and chorological addition of the vascular flora of Montenegro. In: Pešić V, Hadžiablahović S (eds) Proceedings of the symposium, II international symposium of ecologists of Montenegro, Kotor, 20–25 Sept 2006, pp 93–100Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hadžiablahović S (2010) The vascular flora of Ćemovsko polje (Montenegro). Natura Montenegrina 9(1):7–143Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hadžiablahović S (2012) Vicia loiseleurii (M. B.) D. Litvinov (Leguminosae) in the flora of Montenegro. Natura Montenegrina 11(3):425–431Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Petrović D (2004) Floristička studija planine Sutorman. Magistarski rad, Biološki fakultet Univerziteta u BeograduGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Petrović D (2011) Floristička i vegetacijska studija planine Rumije. Doktorska disertacija, Prirodno-matematički fakultet Univerziteta u PodgoriciGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Biberdžić V (2007) Caldesia parnassifolia (L.) Parl. new species in Montenegrin flora. Natura Montenegrina 6:151–152Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hadziablahović S, Sokoli F, Kashta L (2001) Biodiversity database of the Shkodra/Skadar Lake (checklist of species)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hadžiablahović S, Karaman V, Bulić Z (2003) Solanum eleagnifolium Cav. A new neotophyt in the flora of Montenegro. In: II congress of ecologists of the Republic of Macedonia, OhridGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hadžiablahović S, Redžić S, Bulić Z, Trakić S (2011) Chorological additions to the flora of Montenegro. Glas Rep Zavoda Zašt Prir 31–32:95–100Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bubanja N, Stevanović V, Lakušić D (2007) Edraianthus dalmaticus A. DC. (Campanulaceae) in Montenegro. Natura Montenegrina 6:19–25Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Petrović D, Stešević D, Vuksanović S, Hadžiablahović S, Kasom G, Dragićević S, Mačić V, Karaman M, Bušković V, Borija I, Biberdžić V, Bubanja N (2009) Important plant areas in Montenegro. IPA Programe, p 65Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Petrović D, Hadžiablahović S, Vuksanović S, Mačić V, Lakušić D (2012) Catalogue of habitat types of EU importance of MontenegroGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Petrović D, Stešević D (2011) Shift of the western boundary of the distribution area of Micromeria cristata (Hampe) Griseb. and Steptorhamphus tuberosus (Jacq.) Grossh. Acta Bot Croat 70(2):259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Đurišić S (2018) Marsilea quadrifolia L. (Marsileaceae) a new report for the flora of Montenegro. Natura Montenegrina (in press)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    von Grimburg CG (1871) Beiträge zur Flora Albaniens. Verhandlungend k Zoolisch-Botanischen gesellschaft in Wien 21:1345–1352Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Höhnel F (1893) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Laubmoosflora des Küstenstriches vom Görzer Becken bis Scutari in Albanien. Österr Bot Zeitschrr 43(12):403–412Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Baldacci A (1901) Rivista della collezione botanica fatta nel 1897 nell’Albania settentrionale. Mem Accad sci Isti Bologna ser V t 9Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Janchen E (1920) Vorarbeiten zur einer Flora der Umgebung von Skodra in Nord-Albanien. Österr Bot Zeitschr 59:128–146. 169–186, 199–207, 230–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bertram H (1930) Nje ekskursion botanik deri ne Shiroke. Hylli i Drites, 7, 8, 9, 11. ShkoderGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Schütt B (1945) Die Pflanzenwelt von Nordalbanien, des westlichen Montenegro und der westlichen Šar. Manuscript, aufbewahrt im Übersee-Museum, BremenGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Karpati I (1962) Überblick der zönologischen und ökologischen verhältnisse der Auenwälder des Westbalkans. Int Vereinigung für vegetationskunde Ostalpin-Dinarische Sektion Mitteilungen der Ostalpin-dinarischen Pflanzensoziologischen Arbeits – Gemeinschaft 2:101–106. + X tabelleGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Karpati I, Karpati V (1961) Die Zönologischen verhältnisse der auenwälder Albaniens. Acta Bot Sci Hungary 7:235–301Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ruci B (1983) Te dhena mbi vegjetacionin dhe floren e Liqenit te Shkodres. Buletin i Shkencave Natyrore Tirane 3–4:109–113Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ruci B (1985) Konsiderata mbi bimësisnë dhe florën e rrethit të Shkodrës. Dizertacion, Tiranë, p 666Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ruci B, Vangjeli J (1996) Te dhena mbi vegjetacionin e ujrave te embla dhe floren hidro e higrofile te Shqiperise. Uji-Pasuri e madhe kombetare. Studimi dhe administrimi i burimeve ujore te Shqiperise. Konference shkencore kombetare, Tirane, pp 171–176Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kashta L (1999) Perhapja e disa bimeve te rralla dhe te kercenuara ne Liqenin e Shkodres. Bio Eko 2:7–10Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kashta L (1999) Rreth perhapjes se Trapa natans L. ne Liqenin e Shkodres. Bio Eko 1:1–2Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kashta L (2000) Mbi perhapjen e disa bimeve te rralla dhe te kercenuara nehidrobiotope ne afersi te liqenit te Shkodres. Bio Eko 3:12–16Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kashta L (2007) Aquatic macrophytes in Lake Shkodra-Buna River wetlans complex. In: Pinna M, Uricchio VF, Aresta M, Bsset A (eds) Rivers and citizens. Cross-border experiences in environmental protection and sustainable development. Lecce, pp 82–93Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kashta L, Dhora D, Rakaj M (1997) Lista (Checklist) e bimeve dhe kafsheve te Liqenit te Shkodres – pjesa shqiptare. Sector of Bio-ecology for Shkodra Lake, p 24Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kashta L, Rakaj M (1999) Disa specie te reja per floren hidrofile te rrethit te Shkodres. Bio Eko 1:5–7Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kashta L, Rakaj M (1999) Hydrocharis morsus ranae L. (Hydrocharitaceae) dhe Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. (Umbelliferae) – specie te reja per floren e Liqenit te Shkodres. Bio Eko 2:11–13Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Kashta L, Rakaj M (2001) Mbi perhapjen e disa bimeve te rralla dhe tekercenuara ne liqenin e Shkodres dhe ne hidrobiotope ne afersi te tij. In: Konferenca Kombetare e Biologjise, Tirane, 26–27 Prill. Studime BiologjikeGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Kashta L, Rakaj M (2003) First announcement of Caldesia parnassifolia (Bassi) Parlatore (Alismataceae) – a new species for the flora of Albania. Studime Biologjike, Tirane 7:90–96Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rakaj M (2009) New aquatic macrophytes for the flora of Albania from the Lake Shkodra, Drini and Buna basins. J Int Environm Application Science 4(3):278–284Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rakaj M (2011) Floristic and chorological records of monocots of Lake Shkodra. Ref No 014. In: Proceeding book ICE_2011 of international conference of ecosystems, Tiranë, 4–6 June 2011, pp 65–70Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rakaj M, Kashta L (2010) The threatened and rare plant species of the Lake Shkodra – Delta Buna Hydrological System. In: BALWOIS 2010, Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia, 25, 29 May 2010Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rakaj M, Kashta L (2011) Rare and threatened plant asociations and species of Lake Shkodra – Delta Buna wetland complex./Liqeni i Shkodres – gjendja dhe perspektivat, vol 2. CANU/ASHSH, Podgorica, Shkoder, pp 23–35Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rakaj M, Hyseni G (2012) Specie të reja makrofitesh për Liqenin e Shkodres dhe Shqipërinë. Bul Shkencor Ser Shkencave Nat (Shkodër) 62:70–79Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fanelli G, De Sanctis M, Gjeta E, Mullaj A, Attorre F (2015) The vegetation of the Buna river protected landscape (Albania). Hacquetia 14(2):129–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    McNeill J (1963) Taxonomic studies in the Alsinoideae: II. A revision of the species in the orient. Notes Roy Bot Gard Edinburgh 24:241–404Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Speta F (1986) Heterokarpie, Dehiszenz, Heterospermie und basifixe Samen bei Cymbralaria Hill. (Scrophulariaceae) und systematische Schlußfolgerungen. Phyton, Annales Rei Botanicae, Horn 26(1):23–57Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kučera J, Marhold K, Lihová J (2010) Cardamine maritima group (Brassicaceae) in the amphi-Adriatic area: a hotspot of species diversity revealed by DNA sequences and morphological variation. Taxon 59(1):148–164Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Lakušić D, Liber Z, Nikolić T, Surina B, Kovačić S, Bogdanović S, Stefanović S (2013) Molecular phylogeny of the Campanula pyramidalis species complex (Campanulaceae) inferred from chloroplast and nuclear non-coding sequences and its taxonomic implications. Taxon 62(3):505–524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Walther H, Leith H (1964) Klimadiagram. Weltatlas. VEB Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Stevanović V, Stevanović B (1995) Osnovni klimatski, geološki i pedološki činioci biodiverziteta kopnenih ekosistema Jugoslavije. In: Stevanović V, Vasić V (eds) Biodiverzitet Jugoslavije. Biol fak Univerziteta u Beogradu, Ekolibri, Beograd, pp 75–95Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Raunkiaer C (1934) The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Clarendon, LondonGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H (1974) Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Stevanović V (1992) Floristička podela teritorije Srbije sa pregledom viših horiona i odgovarajućih flornih elemenata. In: Sarić MR (ed) Flora Srbije, vol 1. Srpska akademija nauka, Belgrade, pp 47–56Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Anačkov G, Caković D, Stešević D, Vuksanović S, Mačić V, Tomović G (2016) Diversity of vascular flora of Boka Kotorska Bay. In: Joksimović A, Djurović M, Semenov AV, Zonn IS, Kostianoy AG (eds) The Boka Kotorska bay environment. Springer International Publishing, ChamGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Turrill WB (1929) The plant life of the Balkan peninsula. A phytogeographical study. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stevanović V, Jovanović S, Lakušić D, Niketić M (1995) Diverzitet vaskularne flore Jugoslavije sa pregledom vrsta od međunarodnog značaja. In: Stevanović V, Vasić V (eds) Biodiverzitet Jugoslavije sa pregledom vrsta od međunarodnog značaja. Ecolibri, Biološki fakultet, Beograd, pp 183–217Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Peruzzi L, Innangi M, Tatino F, Santangelo A (2017) Fritillaria messanensis subsp. gracilis (Liliaceae), a new record for the Italian flora (S Italy). Phytotaxa 307(2):167–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Službeni glasnik Crne Gore (2006) Rješenje o stavljanju pod zaštitu pojedinih biljnih i životinjskih vrsta. Br 76/06Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Shuka L, Kashta L, Xhulaj M (2008) Evaluation of potential transboundary important plant areas of the North Albania. Natura Montenegrina 7(3):425–439Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    García Criado M, Väre H, Nieto A, Bento Elias R, Dyer R, Ivanenko Y, Ivanova D, Lansdown R, Molina JA, Rouhan G, Rumsey F, Troia A, Vrba J, Christenhusz MJM (2017) European red list of lycopods and ferns, vol 4. IUCN, Brussels, p 59Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lansdown RV (2014) Baldellia ranunculoides. The IUCN red list of threatened species 2014: e.T164327A42332261.  https://doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-1.RLTS.T164327A42332261.en
  127. 127.
    Weber HE, Moravec J, Theurillat JP (2000) International code of phytosociological nomenclature. J Veg Sci 11:739–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mucina L, Bültmann H, Dierßen K et al (2016) Vegetation of Europe: hierarchical floristic classification systemof vascular plant, bryophyte, lichen, and algal communities. Appl Veg Sci 19(Suppl 1):3–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Interpretation manual of European Union Habitats – EUR28 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental and Nature Protection Agency of MontenegroPodgoricaMontenegro
  2. 2.Faculty of PhilosophyUniversity of MontenegroPodgoricaMontenegro

Personalised recommendations