Water Demand Management and Its Impact on Water Resources at the Building Level

  • Z. VranayováEmail author
  • D. Káposztásová
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 70)


New reports of water scarcity and record droughts due to climate changes are becoming increasingly common. The costs of water infrastructure have risen dramatically. Discussing the water used in a good or bad (waste) way led us to think if we are using water in a sustainable way. A common characteristic of water demand in buildings means its relentless rise over many years and conception of continuous growth over coming decades. The main influencing factors of water demand patterns are population growth, lifestyle change depending on the region, demographic structure and the possible effects of upcoming changes in climate and other health risk factors.

In the European Union, it is common to use well and rainwater source for non-potable purposes (such as irrigation, toilet flushing, etc.). Grey water reuse is in our country still rare. Common household usage consumes a lot of water. There is a need to manage its end use as sustainable as our conditions allow us. Potable water consumption of the Slovak households isn’t above average at all, but its use is inappropriate. Questionnaire on water, as one of data collection methods, gives a closer look at water habits of households. The results show that most of our citizens are pro water saving oriented and open to new water ideas – as in the building water cycle.

The main goal of this chapter is to present the background for the water use, regulations and legislative framework in the context of a water conservation strategy and discuss water types in building water cycle connected to water-energy nexus in the wider environment.

There is a gap for water regulation and water supply of grey and rainwater systems. This chapter pointed out the challenges and recommendations to strengthen and enhance future of alternative water sources based on the scientific findings, policy, economic and social impacts.


Building water cycle Questionnaire Sustainability Water sources 



This work was supported by project VEGA n. `/0202/15: Sustainable and Safe Water Management in Buildings of the 3rd Millennium.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Building Services, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Institute of Architectural EngineeringTechnical University of KosiceKosiceSlovakia

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