Photo(Catalytic) Oxidation Processes for the Removal of Natural Organic Matter and Contaminants of Emerging Concern from Water

  • Monica Brienza
  • Can Burak Özkal
  • Gianluca Li Puma
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 67)


Natural organic matter (NOM) is a heterogeneous complex of organic materials and is ubiquitous in natural aquatic systems. The amount of NOM in the environment is continuously increasing because of global warming and/or changes in precipitation patterns and has negative impact on drinking water as it produces an undesirable colour and as a vector for the introduction of contaminants. For these reasons, several technologies have been proposed to address the impact of NOM in aqueous systems. Among these, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) refer to oxidation processes that result in the formation of highly reactive radical species. This chapter presents an overview of recent research studies dealing with photon-activated AOPs for the removal of NOM and emerging contaminants in water.


Advanced oxidation processes Degradation Energy efficiency NOM Water pollutants 



Advanced oxidation processes


Chemical oxygen demand


Disinfection by-products


Dissolved organic carbon


Dissolved organic matter


Emerging contaminants


Endocrine-disrupting compounds


Electrical energy per order


Fulvic acid




Granular activated carbon


Hydrogen peroxide


Humic acid


Inorganic carbon


Normal organic matter






Pharmaceuticals and personal care products


Radical oxygen species




Trihalomethanes formation potential


Total organic carbon




Ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm


Urban wastewater


Volatile chlorinated organic carbons


Vacuum UV


  1. 1.
    Oturan MA, Aaron J (2014) Advanced oxidation processes in water/wastewater treatment: principles and applications. A review. Crit Rev Environ Sci 44:2577–2641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kleiser G, Frimmel FH (2000) Removal of precursors for disinfection by-products (DBPs) – differences between ozone-and OH-radical-induced oxidation. Sci Total Environ 256:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robert D, Malato S (2002) Solar photocatalysis: a clean process for water detoxification. Sci Total Environ 291:85–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Matilainen A, Sillanpää M (2010) Removal of natural organic matter from drinking water by advanced oxidation processes. Chemosphere 80:351–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thurman EM (1985) Classification of dissolved organic carbon. In: Organic geochemistry of natural waters. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The HagueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eikebrokk B, Vogt RD, Liltved H (2004) NOM increase in northern European source waters: discussion of possible causes and impacts on coagulation/contact filtration processes. Water Sci Tech-W Sup 4:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Volk C, Bell K, Ibrahim E, Verges D, Amy G, LeChevallier M (2000) Impact of enhanced and optimized coagulation on removal of organic matter and its biodegradable fraction in drinking water. Water Res 34:3247–3257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Richardson SD, Plewa MJ, Wagner ED, Schoeny R, DeMarini DM (2007) Occurrence, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of regulated and emerging disinfection by-products in drinking water: a review and roadmap for research. Mutat Res 636:178–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Siddiqui MS, Amy GL, Murphy BD (1997) Ozone enhanced removal of natural organic matter from drinking water sources. Water Res 31:3098–3106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Newcombe G, Drikas M (1997) Adsorption of NOM onto activated carbon: electrostatic and non-electrostatic effects. Carbon 35:1239–1250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matilainen A, Vepsäläinen M, Sillanpää M (2010) Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: a review. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 159:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Särkkä H, Vepsäläinen M, Sillanpää M (2015) Natural organic matter (NOM) removal by electrochemical methods – a review. J Electroanal Chem 755:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Glaze WH, Kang JW, Chapin DH (1987) The chemistry of water treatment processes involving ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet radiation. Ozone Sci Eng 9:335–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lucas MS, Dias AA, Sampaio A, Amaral C, Peres JA (2007) Degradation of a textile reactive Azo dye by a combined chemical–biological process: Fenton’s reagent-yeast. Water Res 41:1103–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mantzavinos D, Psillakis E (2004) Enhancement of biodegradability of industrial wastewaters by chemical oxidation pre-treatment. J Chem Technol Biot 79:431–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tarr MA (2003) Chemical degradation methods for wastes and pollutants: environmental and industrial applications. CRC Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hua I, Hoffmann MR (1997) Optimization of ultrasonic irradiation as an advanced oxidation technology. Environ Sci Technol 31:2237–2243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liang J, Komarov S, Hayashi N, Kasai E (2007) Improvement in sonochemical degradation of 4-chlorophenol by combined use of Fenton-like reagents. Ultrason Sonochem 14:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ma Y-S, Sung C-F (2010) Investigation of carbofuran decomposition by a combination of ultrasound and Fenton process. J Environ Eng Manag 20:213–219Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Namkung K-C, Burgess AE, Bremner DH, Staines H (2008) Advanced Fenton processing of aqueous phenol solutions: a continuous system study including sonication effects. Ultrason Sonochem 15:171–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ma Y-S (2012) Short review: current trends and future challenges in the application of sono-Fenton oxidation for wastewater treatment. Sustain Environ Res 22:271–278Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Martínez-Huitle CA, Brillas E (2009) Decontamination of wastewaters containing synthetic organic dyes by electrochemical methods: a general review. Appl Catal B-Environ 87:105–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zaviska F, Drogui P, Mercier G, Blais J-F (2009) Procédés d’oxydation avancée dans le traitement des eaux et des effluents industriels: application à la dégradation des polluants réfractaires. Rev Sci Eau 22:535–564Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gumy D, Rincon AG, Hajdu R, Pulgarin C (2006) Solar photocatalysis for detoxification and disinfection of water: different types of suspended and fixed TiO2 catalysts study. Sol Energy 80:1376–1381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Daghrir R, Drogui P, Robert D (2013) Modified TiO2 for environmental photocatalytic applications: a review. Ind Eng Chem Res 52:3581–3599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fujishima A, Zhang X, Tryk DA (2008) TiO2 photocatalysis and related surface phenomena. Surf Sci Rep 63:515–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fenton HJH (1894) LXXIII. Oxidation of tartaric acid in presence of iron. J Chem Soc Trans 65:899–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pignatello JJ, Oliveros E, MacKay A (2006) Advanced oxidation processes for organic contaminant destruction based on the Fenton reaction and related chemistry. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 36:1–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Faust BC, Hoigné J (1990) Photolysis of Fe (III)-hydroxy complexes as sources of OH radicals in clouds, fog and rain. Atmos Environ 24:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kaichouh G, Oturan N, Oturan MA, El Kacemi K, El Hourch A (2004) Degradation of the herbicide imazapyr by Fenton reactions. Environ Chem Lett 2:31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Peyton GR, Glaze WH (1988) Destruction of pollutants in water with ozone in combination with ultraviolet radiation. 3. Photolysis of aqueous ozone. Environ Sci Technol 22:761–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhowmick M, Semmens MJ (1994) Ultraviolet photooxidation for the destruction of VOCs in air. Water Res 28:2407–2415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Eckenfelder WW, Bowers AR, Roth JA (1993) Chemical oxidation: technology for the nineties, vol 2. CRC Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Doré M (1989) Chimie des Oxydants et Traitement des Eux. Tec & DocGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Staehelin J, Hoigné J (1982) Decomposition of ozone in water in the presence of organic solutes acting as promoters and inhibitors of radical reactions. Environ Sci Technol 19:1206–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Glaze WH, Kang JW (1989) Advanced oxidation processes – description of a kinetic model for the oxidation of hazardous materials in aqueous-media with ozone and hydrogen-peroxide in a semibatch reactor. Ind Eng Chem Res 28(11):1573–1580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    von Gunten U (2003) Ozonation of drinking water: part I. Oxidation kinetics and product formation. Water Res 37:1443–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    von Gunten U (2003) Ozonation of drinking water: part II. Disinfection and by product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine. Water Res 37:1469–1487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Oppenlander T (2007) Photochemical purification of water and air: advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) – principles, reaction mechanisms, reactor concepts. Wiley, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gonzalez MG, Oliveros E, Wörner M, Braun AM (2004) Vacuum-ultraviolet photolysis of aqueous reaction systems. J Photoch Photobio C 5:225–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Buchanan W, Roddick F, Porter N (2006) Formation of hazardous by-products resulting from the irradiation of natural organic matter: comparison between UV and VUV irradiation. Chemosphere 63:1130–1141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sanly Lim M, Chiang K, Amal R, Fabris R, Cho C, Drikas M (2007) A study on the removal of humic acid using advanced oxidation processes. Sep Sci Technol 42:1391–1404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Espinoza LAT, Frimmel FH (2008) Formation of brominated products in irradiated titanium dioxide suspensions containing bromide and dissolved organic carbon. Water Res 42:1778–1784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Goslan EH, Gurses F, Banks J, Parsons SA (2006) An investigation into reservoir NOM reduction by UV photolysis and advanced oxidation processes. Chemosphere 65:1113–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Katsumata H, Sada M, Kaneco S, Suzuki T, Ohta K, Yobiko Y (2008) Humic acid degradation in aqueous solution by the photo-Fenton process. Chem Eng J 137:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Birben NC, Uyguner-Demirel CS, Bekbolet M (2016) Photocatalytic removal of microbiological consortium and organic matter in greywater. Catalysts 6(6):91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Valencia S, Marín J, Velásquez J, Restrepo G, Frimmel FH (2012) Study of pH effects on the evolution of properties of brown-water natural organic matter as revealed by size-exclusion chromatography during photocatalytic degradation. Water Res 46:1198–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for community action in the field of water policy. Off J Eur Commun 22.12.2000, L327/1-L327/69Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Meffe R, de Bustamante I (2014) Emerging organic contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a first overview of the situation in Italy. Sci Total Environ 481:280–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Székács A, Mörtl M, Darvas B (2015) Monitoring pesticide residues in surface and ground water in Hungary: surveys in 1990-2015. J Chem. Article ID717948Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jurado A, Vàzquez-Suñé E, Carrera J, López de Alda M, Pujades E, Barceló D (2012) Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater in Spain: a review of sources, recent occurrence and fate in a European context. Sci Total Environ 440:82–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Stuart M, Lapworth D, Crane E, Hart A (2012) Review of risk from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater. Sci Total Environ 416:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pineda Arellano CA, González AJ, Martínez SS, Salgado-Tránsito I, Franco CP (2013) Enhanced mineralization of atrazine by means of photodegradation processes using solar energy at pilot plant scale. J Photoch Photobio A 272:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rozas O, Vidal C, Baeza C, Jardim WF, Rossner A, Mansilla HD (2016) Organic micropollutants (OMPs) in natural waters: oxidation by UV/H2O2 treatment and toxicity assessment. Water Res 98:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chu W, Chan KH, Graham NJD (2006) Enhancement of ozone oxidation and its associated processes in the presence of surfactant: degradation of atrazine. Chemosphere 64:931–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gonzalez MC, Braun AM, Prevot AB, Pelizzetti E (1994) Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water: mineralization of atrazine. Chemosphere 28:2121–2127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Katsumata H, Kaneco S, Suzuki T, Ohta K, Yobiko Y (2006) Photo-Fenton degradation of alachlor in the presence of citrate solution. J Photoch Photobio A 180:38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Beltrán FJ, González M, Rivas FJ, Acedo B (2000) Determination of kinetic parameters of ozone during oxidations of alachlor in water. Water Environ Res 72:689–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ryu CS, Kim M-S, Kim B-W (2003) Photodegradation of alachlor with the TiO2 film immobilised on the glass tube in aqueous solution. Chemosphere 53:765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Peñuela GA, Barceló D (1996) Comparative degradation kinetics of alachlor in water by photocatalysis with FeCl3, TiO2 and photolysis, studied by solid-phase disk extraction followed by gas chromatographic techniques. J Chromatogr A 754:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Haque MM, Muneer M (2003) Heterogeneous photocatalysed degradation of a herbicide derivative, isoproturon in aqueous suspension of titanium dioxide. J Environ Manag 69:169–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bobu MM, Siminiceanu I, Lundanes E (2005) Photodegradation of Isoproturon in water by several advanced oxidation processes. Chem Bull “Politehnica” Univ 50(64):45–48Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Manassero A, Passalia C, Negro AC, Cassano AE, Zalazar CS (2010) Glyphosate degradation in water employing the H2O2/UVC process. Water Res 44:3875–3882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Assalin MR, De Moraes SG, Queiroz SCN, Ferracini VL, Duran N (2009) Studies on degradation of glyphosate by several oxidative chemical processes: ozonation, photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis. J Environ Sci Health B 45:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sui Q, Cao X, Lu S, Zhao W, Qiu Z, Yu G (2015) Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: a review. Emerg Contam 1:14–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Benotti MJ, Trenholm RA, Vanderford BJ, Holady JC, Stanford BD, Snyder SA (2009) Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water. Environ Sci Technol 43:597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bredhult C, Bäcklin B-M, Olovsson M (2007) Effects of some endocrine disruptors on the proliferation and viability of human endometrial endothelial cells in vitro. Reprod Toxicol 23:550–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Verlicchi P, Al Aukidy M, Zambello E (2012) Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment: a review. Sci Total Environ 429:123–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    ISO 6341:2012 (2012) Water quality. Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia Magna straus (Cladocera, Crustacea) – acute toxicity test. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    ISO 1134-3:2007 (2007) Water quality. Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of Vibrio fischeri (luminescent bacteria test) – part 3: method using freeze-dried bacteria. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Greene JC, Bartels CL, Warren-Hicks WJ, Parkhurst BR, Linder GL, Peterson SA, Miller WE (1988) EPA 600/3-88/029. Protocol for short term toxicity screening of hazardous waste sites. US Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    ISO 7346-1:1996 (1996) Water quality. Determination of the acute lethal toxicity of substances to a freshwater fish [Brachydanio rerio Hamilton-Buchanan (Teleostei, Cyprinidae)] – part 1: static method. International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Brienza M, Mahdi Ahmed M, Escande A, Plantard G, Scrano L, Chiron S, Bufo SA, Goetz V (2016) Use of solar advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment: follow-up on degradation products, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity. Chemosphere 148:473–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pereira VJ, Weinberg HS, Linden KG, Singer PC (2007) UV degradation kinetics and modeling of pharmaceutical compounds in laboratory grade and surface water via direct and indirect photolysis at 254 nm. Environ Sci Technol 41:1682–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vogna D, Marotta R, Andreozzi R, Napolitano A, D’Ischia M (2004) Kinetic and chemical assessment of the UV/H2O2 treatment of antiepileptic drug carbamazepine. Chemosphere 54:497–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Doll TE, Frimmel FH (2005) Photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine, clofibric acid and iomeprol with P25 and Hombikat UV100 in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM) and other organic water constituents. Water Res 39:403–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kim I, Yamashita N, Tanaka H (2009) Performance of UV and UV/H2O2 processes for the removal of pharmaceuticals detected in secondary effluent of a sewage treatment plant in Japan. J Hazard Mater 166:1134–1140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kim I, Tanaka H (2009) Photodegradation characteristics of PPCPs in water with UV treatment. Environ Int 35:793–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Buser HR, Poiger T, Müller MD (1998) Occurrence and fate of the pharmaceutical drug diclofenac in surface waters: rapid photodegradation in a lake. Environ Sci Technol 32:3449–3456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pérez-Estrada LA, Maldonado MI, Gernjak W, Agüera A, Fernández-Alba AR, Ballesteros MM, Malato S (2005) Decomposition of diclofenac by solar driven photocatalysis at pilot plant scale. Catal Today 101:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Moreira NFF, Orge CA, Ribeiro AR, Faria JL, Nunes OC, Pereira MFR, Silva AMT (2015) Fast mineralization and detoxification of amoxicillin and diclofenac by photocatalytic ozonation and application to an urban wastewater. Water Res 87:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hu L, Flanders PM, Miller PL, Strathmann TJ (2007) Oxidation of sulfamethoxazole and related antimicrobial agents by TiO2 photocatalysis. Water Res 41:2612–2626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Trovó AG, Nogueira RFP, Agüera A, Fernandez-Alba AR, Sirtori C, Malato S (2009) Degradation of sulfamethoxazole in water by solar photo-Fenton. Chemical and toxicological evaluation. Water Res 43:3922–3931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Huber MM, Canonica S, Park GY, Von Gunten U (2003) Oxidation of pharmaceuticals during ozonation and advanced oxidation processes. Environ Sci Technol 37:1016–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Heringa MB, Harmsen DJH, Beerendonck EF, Resus AA, Krul CAM, Metz DH, Ijpelaar GF (2011) Formation and removal of genotoxic activity during UV/H2O2-GAC treatment of drinking water. Water Res 45:366–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Marugán J, Bru D, Pablos C, Catalá M (2012) Comparative evaluation of acute toxicity by Vibrio fischeri and fern spore based bioassays in the follow-up of toxic chemicals degradation by photocatalysis. J Hazard Mater 213–214:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lelario F, Brienza M, Bufo SA, Scrano L (2016) Effectiveness of different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on the abatement of the model compound mepanipyrim in water. J Photoch Photobio A 321:187–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lapertot M, Ebrahimi S, Dazio S, Rubinelli A, Pulgarin C (2007) Photo-Fenton and biological integrated process for degradation of a mixture of pesticides. J Photoch Photobio A 186:34–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Gómez MJ, Sirtori C, Mezcua M, Fernández-Alba AR, Agüera A (2008) Photodegradation study of three dipyrone metabolites in various water systems: identification and toxicity of their photodegradation products. Water Res 42:2698–2706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sichel C, Garcia C, Andre K (2011) Feasibility studies: UV/chlorine advanced oxidation treatment for the removal of emerging contaminants. Water Res 45:6371–6380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bolton JR, Bircher KG, Tumas W, Tolman C (2001) Figures-of-merit for the technical development and application of advanced oxidation technologies for both electric-and solar-driven systems. Pure Appl Chem 73:627–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Arslan-Altan L (2004) Advanced oxidation of textile industry dyes. In: Parsons S (ed) Advanced oxidation processes for water and wastewater treatment. IWA Publishing, London, pp 302–328Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mehrjouei M, Mülle S, Möller D (2014) Energy consumption of three different advanced oxidation methods for water treatment: a cost-effectiveness study. J Clean Prod 65:178–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Asaithambi P, Saravanathamizhan R, Matheswaran M (2015) Comparison of treatment and energy efficiency of advanced oxidation processes for the distillery wastewater. Int J Environ Sci Technol 12:2213–2220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mahamuni NN, Adewuyi YG (2010) Ultrasonics sonochemistry advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) involving ultrasound for waste water treatment: a review with emphasis on cost estimation. Ultrason Sonochem 17:990–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica Brienza
    • 1
  • Can Burak Özkal
    • 1
  • Gianluca Li Puma
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EngineeringNamik Kemal UniversityTekirdağTurkey

Personalised recommendations