Environmental and Climatic Implications of Lake Manzala, Egypt: Modeling and Assessment

  • Mohamed ElshemyEmail author
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 72)


Lake Manzala, the greatest Egyptian coastal lakes, is considered as one of the most valuable fish sources in Egypt. Recently, the water quality status of the lake has been sharply deteriorated due to the excessive discharge of industrial, agricultural, and municipal wastewater. Moreover, the lake is considered vulnerable to the impacts of future climatic changes, which will affect its hydrodynamic and water quality characteristics. This study has two main objectives: assessing the lake water quality status and quantifying the future climatic change impacts on the hydrodynamic and water quality characteristics of the lake. A comprehensive water quality assessment of the lake, based on water quality index (WQI) and trophic status index (TSI) approaches, has been presented to spatially assign the lake water quality conditions. A calibrated hydrodynamic water quality model (MIKE21 modeling system) and future projected estimates of the climatic changes have been used to investigate the impacts of climate change on the lake characteristics. The results revealed the critical and very bad water quality status and the high and very high trophic conditions, particularly in the southern and eastern zones due to the drainage of the polluted drains. The developed model results closely mimic the measured profiles of the simulated parameters. Severe spatial changes of the lake water temperature, water depth, and salinity due to future climatic changes are noticed. Based on the study results, an urgent water quality management strategy should be implemented for the lake, and an adaptation plan for the Egyptian coastal lakes should be investigated.


AR5 Climate change IPCC Lake Manzala LWQI MIKE21 TRIX TSI WQI 



This paper originated as part of a project titled “Assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to sea level rise for the Egyptian coastal lakes” and funded by the Alexandria Research Centre for Adaptation (ARCA), Alexandria University, Egypt. The field data for this modeling study were provided by the National Water Research Center (NWRC), Egypt; the Department of Irrigation and Hydraulics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Egypt; and the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), Egypt, and their help was greatly appreciated. The author extremely thanks the reviewers for their hard work to improve the quality of this work.


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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Irrigation and Hydraulics Department, Faculty of EngineeringTanta UniversityTantaEgypt

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