Geographic Characteristics of the Black-Caspian Seas Region

  • Andrey G. KostianoyEmail author
  • Igor S. Zonn
  • Evgeniia A. Kostianaia
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 51)


Existing and planned oil and gas pipelines cross or should cross the Caspian and Black Seas, the Caucasus, Mountains in Turkey and Iran, the Karakum Desert, and numerous rivers. Analysis of natural factors causing emergency situations becomes the key issue in assessment of environmental risks. In the Caspian Sea, such natural factors include storms, ice conditions in the Northern Caspian, sea level change, surges, extreme waves, coastal zone flooding, and hazardous geological and geomorphological conditions, such as earthquakes, gas saturated zones, etc. In the Black Sea, these are big depths, hydrosulfide layer deeper than 100 m, unstable sediments on the continental slope and earthquakes. Mountains in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Iran, Turkmenistan, and Russia represent natural barriers for construction and exploitation of pipelines. This chapter briefly reviews main geographic characteristics in the Black-Caspian Seas Region which impede construction of land and offshore oil and gas pipelines.


Earthquakes Geography Ice cover Oil and gas pipelines Plains Rivers Sea level Storm surges The Black Sea The Caspian Sea The Caucasus The Pontic Mountains The Sea of Azov The Tauri Mountains Wind and waves 



The present research has been supported by the Russian Science Foundation under the Project N 14-50-00095. The research has been partially done in the framework of collaboration with Dr. Marilaure Grégoire from the Interfacultary Center for Marine Research (MARE) and Modelling for Aquatic Systems (MAST), University of Liège, Belgium.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrey G. Kostianoy
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Igor S. Zonn
    • 2
    • 4
  • Evgeniia A. Kostianaia
    • 1
  1. 1.P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.S.Yu. Witte Moscow UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Interfacultary Center for Marine Research (MARE) and Modelling for Aquatic Systems (MAST)University of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  4. 4.Engineering Research Production Center for Water Management, Land Reclamation and Ecology “Soyuzvodproject”MoscowRussia

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