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Environmental Risks in Production and Transportation of Hydrocarbons in the Caspian–Black Sea Region

  • Igor S. Zonn
  • Andrey G. Kostianoy
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 51)

Abstract

Environmental risks in production and transportation of hydrocarbons in the Caspian–Black Sea Region are discussed. Natural factors include storms, ice conditions in the Northern Caspian, sea level change, surges, extreme waves, flooding of the coastal zone, earthquakes, etc. Anthropogenic factors include accidents with tankers and oil/gas platforms at sea, damages of offshore pipelines (corrosion), violations of the rules and regulations of works in the construction and repair, violation of technical specifications in the manufacture of pipes and equipment, erroneous actions of operational and maintenance personnel, criminal punches, terrorism, sabotage, etc. The laying of pipelines leads to deforestation and degradation of agricultural lands, historical sites and monuments, nature reserves, and protected areas. Oil leaks in case of damage and improper use of pipelines cause pollution of drinking water sources, lands, and residential areas; violations of the habitat of plants and animals; and heavy man-made disasters: explosions and fires, often with fatalities. Some examples of offshore accidents in the oil and gas industry of the Caspian Sea are discussed.

Keywords

Environmental risks Gas Oil Pipelines The Black Sea The Caspian Sea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The research was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under the project N 14-50-00095.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Engineering Research Production Center for Water Management, Land Reclamation and Ecology “Soyuzvodproject”MoscowRussia
  2. 2.S.Yu. Witte Moscow UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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