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Introduction: Personal Care Products in the Aquatic Environment

  • Daniel Molins-DelgadoEmail author
  • M. Silvia Díaz-Cruz
  • Damià Barceló
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 36)

Abstract

This chapter presents an overview of the main aspects relating to the occurrence and impact of ingredients in personal care products to the aquatic environment: methodologies of analysis, prevalence data, elimination processes, threats to the aquatic ecosystem, effects on biota and legislation with a special focus in European regulation. Water is a valuable resource for the environment as well as for human activities. Although it covers most of the Earth’s surface, the amount of usable water is finite. Since ancient times until now, the use of water in human activities has been rapidly increasing along with the increase of the population, producing a continuous release of pollutants into the aquatic environment. Personal care products are a widely used group of substances that have been raising concerns during the last decades due to its continuous release into the environment and its proven effects (mostly on in vitro and in vivo assays) as a threat to all kinds of living organisms. Recent studies suggest that its continuous application on the skin or the intake of contaminated food may cause some concerning hazardous effects in human beings. In order to ensure the protection of this key ecosystem, a series of worldwide initiatives have been taking place during the last two decades, impelling monitoring programmes and governmental regulations worldwide. The common grounds of the European Union establish a series of regulations, such as the Water Framework Directive or the Regulation on Cosmetic Products, to protect both the environment and the consumer with revisable lists of regulated hazardous compounds.

Keywords

Aquatic environment Environmental legislation Health risk Personal care products Pollution sources 

List of Abbreviations

4MBC

4-methylbenzylidiene camphor

AHTN

Tonalide

BP3

Benzophenone 3

BP4

Benzophenone 4

DEET

N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide

EHMC

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate

EMEA

European medicine evaluation agency

EPA

Environmental protection agency

HHCB

Galaxolide

INCI

International nomenclature of cosmetic ingredients

Kow

Octanol-water partition coefficient

NP

Nonylphenol

NPEs

Nonylphenol ethoxylates

OC

Octocrylene

OTNE

Ethanone

PCPs

Personal care products

PVC

Polyvinyl chloride

REACH

Registration, evaluation, authorisation and restrictions of chemicals

UV234

2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4,6-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)phenol

UV326

2-tert-buthyl-6-(5-chloro-2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-methylphenol

UVP

2-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-p-cresol

WFD

Water framework directive

WWF

World water forum

WWTPs

Wastewater treatment plant

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work has been financially supported by the Generalitat de Catalunya (Consolidated Research Groups “2014 SGR 418 - Water and Soil Quality Unit”).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Molins-Delgado
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Silvia Díaz-Cruz
    • 1
  • Damià Barceló
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ChemistryIDAEA-CSICBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA)Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de GironaGironaSpain

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