Advertisement

Removal of Personal Care Products in Constructed Wetlands

  • Paola VerlicchiEmail author
  • Elena Zambello
  • Mustafa Al Aukidy
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 36)

Abstract

This chapter is an overview of the occurrence of common personal care products in the influent and effluent of different types of constructed wetlands fed with domestic wastewaters, acting as primary, secondary, or tertiary steps and the corresponding removal efficiency achieved by these treatments. The reviewed personal care products belong to eight different classes: 3 antioxidants, 2 antiseptics, 1 deodorant, 1 insect repellant, 1 plasticizer, 3 sunscreen products, 5 synthetic musks, and 16 surfactants (seven anionic and nine nonionic).

Data are collated from 35 peer review papers, referring to investigations carried out in Europe (66%), America (28%), and Asia (6%). Of the 87 treatment lines reviewed, the most common constructed wetland type was the horizontal subsurface flow (49%) followed by the surface flow (38%) and, in a few cases, the vertical subsurface flow. Removal was mainly influenced by redox potential, temperature, hydraulic retention time, and influent concentration of the compound.

The highest values of removal were found for fragrances in secondary systems and fragrances and triclosan in polishing systems.

Due to the different and simultaneous removal mechanisms occurring within these systems and their buffer capacity, they might represent a reliable and feasible treatment which is able to control and reduce the spread of personal care products in the aquatic environment.

Keywords

Constructed wetlands Occurrence Personal care products Removal efficiencies Removal mechanisms 

References

  1. 1.
    Somasundaran P, Chakraborty S, Deo P et al (2006) Contribution of surfactants to personal care products. In: Rhein LD, Schlossman M, O’Lenick A, Somasundaran P (eds) Surfactants in personal care products and decorative cosmetics, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 121–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen FA (2008) Final amended report on the safety assessment of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, isopropylparaben, butylparaben, isobutylparaben and benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products. Int J Toxicol 27:1–82Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Singer H, Müller S, Tixier C et al (2002) Triclosan: occurrence and fate of a widely used biocide in the aquatic environment: field measurements in wastewater treatment plants, surface waters, and lake sediments. Environ Sci Technol 36:4998–5004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alder AC, Bruchet A, Carballa M et al (2007) Consumption and occurrence. In: Ternes TA, Joss A (eds) Human pharmaceuticals, hormones and fragrances. The challenge of micropollutants in urban water management. IWA Publishing, London, pp 15–54Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ternes TA, Stüber J, Herrmann N et al (2003) Ozonation: a tool for removal of pharmaceuticals, contrast media and musk fragrances from wastewaters? Water Res 37:1976–1982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kunz PY, Fent K (2006) Estrogenic activity of UV filter mixtures. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 217:86–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bester K (ed) (2007) Personal care compounds in the environment: pathways, fate and methods for determination. WILEY, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stuart M, Lapworth D, Crane E et al (2012) Review of risk of from potential emerging contaminants in UK groundwater. Sci Total Environ 416:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Directive 2013/39/UE of August 12, 2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council amending Directives 2000/60/EC and 2008/105/EC as regards priority substances in the field of water policy.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Richardson SD, Ternes TA (2011) Water analysis: emerging contaminants and current issues. Anal Chem 83:4614–4648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bottoni P, Caroli S, Caracciolo AB (2010) Pharmaceuticals as priority water contaminants. Toxiol Environ Chem 92:549–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lapworth DJ, Baran N, Stuart ME et al (2012) Emerging contaminants in groundwater: a review of sources, fate and occurrence. Environ Pollut 163:287–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Verlicchi P, Al Aukidy M, Zambello E (2012) Occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in urban wastewater: removal, mass load and environmental risk after a secondary treatment – a review. Sci Total Environ 429:123–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verlicchi P, Zambello E (2014) How efficient are constructed wetlands in removing pharmaceuticals from untreated and treated urban wastewaters? A review. Sci Total Environ 470–471:1281–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Verlicchi P, Galletti A, Petrovic M et al (2013) Removal of selected pharmaceuticals from domestic wastewater in an activated sludge system followed by a horizontal subsurface flow bed—analysis of their respective contributions. Sci Total Environ 454–455:411–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reyes-Contreras C, Matamoros V, Ruiz I et al (2011) Evaluation of PPCPs removal in a combined anaerobic digester-constructed wetland pilot plant treating urban wastewater. Chemosphere 84:1200–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barber LB, Keefe SH, Antweiler RC et al (2006) Accumulation of contaminants in fish from wastewater treatment wetlands. Environ Sci Technol 40:603–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Zheng W, Kelly WR (2013) Occurrence and removal of pharmaceutical and hormone contaminants in rural wastewater treatment lagoons. Sci Total Environ 445–446:22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zarate FM Jr, Schulwitz SE, Stevens KJ et al (2012) Bioconcentration of triclosan, methyl-triclosan, and triclocarban in the plants and sediments of a constructed wetland. Chemosphere 88:323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhu S, Chen H (2014) The fate and risk of selected pharmaceutical and personal care products in wastewater treatment plants and a pilot-scale multistage constructed wetland system. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 21:1466–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Avila C, Matamoros V, Reyes-Contreras C et al (2014) Attenuation of emerging organic contaminants in a hybrid constructed wetland system under different hydraulic loading rates and their associated toxicological effects in wastewater. Sci Total Environ 470–471:1272–1280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Carlson JC, Anderson JC, Low JE et al (2013) Presence and hazards of nutrients and emerging organic micropollutants from sewage lagoon discharges into Dead Horse Creek, Manitoba, Canada. Sci Total Environ 445–446:64–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lishman L, Smyth SA, Sarafin K et al (2006) Occurrence and reductions of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and estrogens by municipal wastewater treatment plants in Ontario, Canada. Sci Total Environ 367:544–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Matamoros V, Salvadó V (2012) Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants. Chemosphere 86:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Matamoros V, Bayona JM, SalvadóV (2010) A comparative study of removal of emerging pollutants in a conventional tertiary treatment and a pond-constructed wetland system. Paper presented at the 12th IWA Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, Venice, 4–8 October 2010Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Matamoros V, Arias CA, Nguyen LX et al (2012) Occurrence and behavior of emerging contaminants in surface water and a restored wetland. Chemosphere 88:1083–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Matamoros V, Sala L, Salvadó V (2012) Evaluation of a biologically-based filtration water reclamation plant for removing emerging contaminants: a pilot plant study. Bioresour Technol 104:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Park N, Vanderford BJ, Snyder SA et al (2009) Effective controls of micropollutants included in wastewater effluent using constructed wetlands under anoxic condition. Ecol Eng 35:418–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Waltman EL, Venables BJ, Waller WT (2006) Triclosan in a north Texas wastewater treatment plant and the influent and effluent of an experimental constructed wetland. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:367–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lee S, Kang S, Lim J et al (2011) Evaluating controllability of pharmaceuticals and metabolites in biologically engineered processes, using corresponding octanol-water distribution coefficient. Ecol Eng 37:1595–1600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Avila C, Pedescoll A, Matamoros V et al (2010) Capacity of a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system for the removal of emerging pollutants: an injection experiment. Chemosphere 81:1137–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Avila C, Reyes C, Bayona JM, García J (2013) Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox. Water Res 47:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Navarro AE, Hernãndez ME, Bayona JM et al (2011) Removal of selected organic pollutants and coliforms in pilot constructed wetlands in southeastern Mexico. Int J Environ Anal Chem 91:680–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Matamoros V, Arias C, Brix H et al (2007) Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from urban wastewater in a pilot vertical flow constructed wetland and a sand filter. Environ Sci Technol 41:8171–8177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matamoros V, Arias C, Brix H et al (2009) Preliminary screening of small-scale domestic wastewater treatment systems for removal of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Water Res 43:55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hijosa-Valsero M, Matamoros V, Sidrach-Cardona R et al (2010) Comprehensive assessment of the design configuration of constructed wetlands for the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from urban wastewaters. Water Res 44:3669–3678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hijosa-Valsero M, Matamoros V, Pedescoll A et al (2011) Evaluation of primary treatment and loading regimes in the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products from urban wastewaters by subsurface-flow constructed wetlands. Int J Environ Anal Chem 91:632–653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Llorens E, Matamoros V, Domingo V et al (2009) Water quality improvement in a full-scale tertiary constructed wetland: effects on conventional and specific organic contaminants. Sci Total Environ 407:2517–2524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Matamoros V, Bayona JM (2006) Elimination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Environ Sci Technol 40:5811–5816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Matamoros V, García J, Bayona JM (2008) Organic micropollutant removal in a full-scale surface flow constructed wetland fed with secondary effluent. Water Res 42:653–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Reif R, Besancon A, Le Corre K et al (2011) Comparison of PPCPs removal on a parallel-operated MBR and AS system and evaluation of effluent post-treatment on vertical flow reed beds. Water Sci Technol 63:2411–2417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Reyes-Contreras C, Hijosa-Valsero M, Sidrach-Cardona R et al (2012) Temporal evolution in PPCP removal from urban wastewater by constructed wetlands of different configuration: a medium-term study. Chemosphere 88:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hijosa-Valsero M, Matamoros V, Martín-Villacorta J et al (2010) Assessment of full-scale natural systems for the removal of PPCPs from wastewater in small communities. Water Res 44:1429–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huang Y, Latorre A, Barceló D et al (2004) Factors affecting linear alkylbenzene sulfonates removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Environ Sci Technol 38:2657–2663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sima J, Havelka M, Diákova K (2013) The long-term study of the surfactant degradation in a constructed wetland. Tenside Surf Det 50:340–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Belmont MA, Metcalfe CD (2003) Feasibility of using ornamental plants (Zantedeschia Aethiopica) in subsurface flow treatment wetlands to remove nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand and nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants - a laboratory-scale study. Ecol Eng 21:233–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Belmont MA, Ikonomou M, Metcalfe CD (2006) Presence of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in a watershed in central mexico and removal from domestic sewage in a treatment wetland. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:29–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Conte G, Martinuzzi N, Giovannelli L et al (2001) Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in central Italy. Water Sci Technol 44:339–343Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kadewa WW, Le Corre K, Pidou M et al (2010) Comparison of grey water treatment performance by a cascading sand filter and a constructed wetland. Water Sci Technol 62:1471–1478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jokerst A, Sharvelle SE, Hollowed ME et al (2011) Seasonal performance of an outdoor constructed wetland for graywater treatment in a temperate climate. Water Environ Res 83:2187–2198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sima J, Holcová V (2011) Removal of nonionic surfactants from wastewater using a constructed wetland. Chem Biodivers 8:1819–1832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sacco C, Pizzo AM, Tiscione E et al (2006) Alkylphenol polyethoxylate removal in a pilot-scale reed bed and phenotypic characterization of the aerobic heterotrophic community. Water Environ Res 78:754–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sima J, Havelka M, Holcová V (2009) Removal of anionic surfactants from wastewater using a constructed wetland. Chem Biodivers 6:1350–1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Legislative Decree D.Lgs 152/2006. Norme in materia ambientale (in Italian).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kase R, Eggen R, Junghans M et al (2011) Assessment of micropollutants from municipal wastewater- combination of exposure and ecotoxicological effect data for Switzerland. In: Sebastian F, Einschlag G (eds) Waste water – evaluation and management. InTech Europe, Rijeka, pp 31–54Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Sima J, Pazderník M, Tříska J et al (2013) Degradation of surface-active compounds in a constructed wetland determined using high performance liquid chromatography and extraction spectrophotometry. J Environ Sci Heal A 48:559–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Conkle JL, Gan J, Anderson MA (2012) Degradation and sorption of commonly detected PPCPs in wetland sediments under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. J Soil Sediment 12:1164–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Reinhold D, Vishwanathan S, Park JJ et al (2010) Assessment of plant-driven removal of emerging organic pollutants by duckweed. Chemosphere 80:687–692CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Verlicchi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elena Zambello
    • 1
  • Mustafa Al Aukidy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EngineeringUniversity of FerraraFerraraItaly

Personalised recommendations