Advertisement

Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Personal Care Products in Water Samples

  • Alberto ChisvertEmail author
  • Amparo Salvador
Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 36)

Abstract

Personal-care products (PCPs) could reach the aquatic environment and cause a great impact in the aquatic ecosystem. In this sense, the monitoring of these emerging pollutants in the environment yields valuable information. For this reason, analytical methods to determine PCPs in environmental waters are needed. Due to the low concentration of the PCPs, i.e. ng L−1, sensitive methods are needed. This required sensitivity can be achieved by using sensitive analytical techniques during the measurement step, or by employing enrichment techniques during the sample treatment step. Obviously, the combination of both sensitive analytical techniques and extraction techniques considerably improves the quality of the determination.

In this way, in the last years, different analytical methods have been developed to determine PCPs in environmental waters from different origin, i.e., water from sea, lake, river, influent and/or effluent wastewater treatment plant, swimming pool, tap, and groundwater. The aim of this chapter is to compile and discuss the analytical literature dealing with the development and validation of analytical methods for determining PCPs in environmental water samples, emphasizing both the employed sample treatment and the subsequent analytical technique.

Keywords

Analytical methods Insect repellents Musk fragrances Preservatives UV filters 

Abbreviations

ADBI

Celestolide

AHMI

Phantolide

AHTN

Tonalide

APCI

Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

APPI

Atmospheric pressure photoionization

ATII

Traseolide

BAμE

Bar adsorptive microextraction

BDM

Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane

BP

Butylparaben

BZ

Benzophenone

BZ1

Benzophenone-1

BZ10

Benzophenone-10

BZ2

Benzophenone-2

BZ3

Benzophenone-3

BZ4

Benzophenone-4

BZ6

benzophenone-6

BZ8

Benzophenone-8

BzP

Benzylparaben

BzPh

Benzylphenol

C18

Octadecyl functionalized silica

C8

Octyl functionalized silica

CAR

Carboxen

CLP

Chlorophene

CMI

Chloromethylisothiazolinone

CPE

Cloud-point extraction

CXL

Chloroxylenol

DART

Direct analysis in real time

DCMI

Dichloromethylisothiazolinone

DEET

N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide

DI

Direct immersion

DLLME

Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction

DPMI

Cashmeran

dSPE

Dispersive solid phase extraction

dμSPE

Dispersive microsolid phase extraction

ECD

Electronic capture detector

EDP

Ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA

EGS

Ethyleneglycol silicone

EI

Electronic ionization

EMC

Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate

EP

Ethylparaben

ES

Ethylhexyl salicylate

ESI

Electrospray ionization

EW

Effluent wastewater

FID

Flame ionization detector

GC

Gas chromatography

GCxGC

Two-dimensional gas chromatography

GW

Groundwater

HFLPME

Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction

HHCB

Galaxolide

HMS

Homosalate

HS

Head-space

ICA

Icaridin

IL

Ionic liquid

IMC

Isoamyl methoxycinnamate

IPBC

Iodopropynyl butylcarbamate

IW

Influent wastewater

KWLPME

Knitting wool liquid phase microextraction

LC

Liquid chromatography

LDPE

Low-density polyethylene

LK

Lake

LLE

Liquid–liquid extraction

LVI

Large volume injection

MA

Musk ambrette

MALLE

Membrane-assisted liquid–liquid extraction

MBC

4-Methylbenzylidene camphor

MCNPME

Magnetically confined nanoparticle microextraction

MEPS

Microextraction by packed sorbent

MI

Methylisothiazolinone

MK

Musk ketone

MLOD

Method limit of detection

MM

Musk moskene

MNPs

Magnetic nanoparticles

MP

Methylparaben

MS

Mass spectrometry

MS/MS

Tandem mass spectrometry

MSA

Magnetically stirring assisted

MT

Musk tibetene

MX

Musk xylene

NPCPs

Non-personal care products

OCR

Octocrylene

PA

Polyacrylate

PBO

Piperonyl butoxide

PBS

Phenylbenzimidazole sulphonic acid

PCPs

Personal care products

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane

PER

Permethrin

PID

Photoionization detector

PMA

Polymethylmethacrylate

PP

Propylparaben

PS-DVB

Polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer

PS-DVB/MH

Polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer modified with hydroxyl groups

PS-DVB/MP

Polystyrene divinylbenzene copolymer modified with pyrrolidone groups

PVP-DVB

Polyvinylpyrrolidone divinylbenzene copolymer

PVP-DVB/MCX

Polyvinylpyrrolidone divinylbenzene copolymer modified with cationic exchange groups

RV

River

SBE

Solvent back extraction

SBSE

Stir-bar sorptive extraction

SDME

Single-drop microextraction

SP

Swimming pool

SPE

Solid-phase extraction

SPME

Solid-phase microextraction

SW

Seawater

TBC

Tetrabromocresol

TC

Temperature-controlled

TCC

Triclocarban

TCS

Triclosan

TD

Thermal desorption

TW

Tap water

UDSA

Up-and-down shaker assisted

USA

Ultrasounds assisted

USAEME

Ultrasounds-assisted emulsification microextraction

UV

Ultraviolet spectrometry

VA

Vortex assisted

References

  1. 1.
    Molins-Delgado D, Díaz-Cruz MS (2014) Introduction: personal care products in the aquatic environment. Hdb Env Chem. doi: 10.1007/698_2014_302
  2. 2.
    Bedoux G, Roig B, Thomas O, Dupont V, Bot BL (2012) Occurrence and toxicity of antimicrobial triclosan and by-products in the environment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1044–1065Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tovar-Sánchez A, Sánchez-Quiles D, Basterretxea G, Benedé JL, Chisvert A, Salvador A, Moreno-Garrido I, Blasco J (2013) Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters. PLoS One 8:e65451Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Petersen K, Heiaas HH, Tollefsen KE (2014) Combined effects of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, biocides and organic contaminants on the growth of Skeletonema pseudocostatum. Aquat Toxicol 150:45–54Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holbech H, Nørum U, Korsgaard B, Bjerregaard P (2002) The chemical UV-filter 3-benzylidene camphor causes an oestrogenic effect in an in vivo fish assay. Pharmacol Toxicol 91:204–208Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carlsson G, Norrgren L (2004) Synthetic musk toxicity to early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 46:102–105Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schreurs RHM, Legler J, Artola-Garicano E, Sinnige TL, Lanser PH, Seinen W, Van der Burg B (2004) In vitro and in vivo antiestrogenic effects of polycyclic musks in Zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol 38:997–1002Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kunz PY, Galicia HF, Fent K (2006) Comparison of in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters in fish. Toxicol Sci 90:349–361Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Coronado M, De Haro H, Deng X, Rempel MA, Lavado R, Shlenk D (2008) Estrogenic activity and reproductive effects of the UV-filter oxybenzone (2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl-methanone) in fish. Aquat Toxicol 90:182–187Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peck AM (2006) Analytical methods for the determination of persistent ingredients of personal care products in environmental matrices. Anal Bioanal Chem 386:907–939Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Giokas DL, Salvador A, Chisvert A (2007) UV filters: from sunscreens to human body and the environment. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 26:360–374Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bester K (2009) Analysis of musk fragrances in environmental samples. J Chromatogr A 1216:470–480Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pedrouzo M, Borrull F, Marcé RM, Pocurull E (2011) Analytical methods for personal-care products in environmental waters. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 30:749–760Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wille K, De Brabander HF, De Wulf E, Van Caeter P, Janssen CR, Vanhaecke L (2012) Coupled chromatographic and mass-spectrometric techniques for the analysis of emerging pollutants in the aquatic environment. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 35:87–108Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gago-Ferrero P, Díaz-Cruz MS, Barceló D (2013) Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the multi-residue analysis of organic UV filters and their transformation products in the aquatic environment. Anal Methods 5:355–366Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gatermann R, Biselli S, Hühnerfuss H, Rimkus GG, Hecker M, Karbe L (2002) Synthetic musks in the environment. Part 1: species-dependent bioaccumulation of polycyclic and nitro musk fragrances in freshwater fish and mussels. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 42:437–446Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lindström A, Buerge IJ, Poiger T, Bergqvist P-A, Müller MD, Buser HR (2002) Occurrence and environmental behaviour of the bactericide triclosan and its methyl derivative in surface waters and in wastewater. Environ Sci Technol 36:2322–2329Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Poiger T, Buser H-R, Balmer ME, Bergqvist P-A, Müller MD (2004) Occurrence of UV filter compounds from sunscreens in surface waters: regional mass balance in two Swiss lakes. Chemosphere 55:951–963Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Balmer ME, Buser H-R, Müller MD, Poiger T (2005) Occurrence of some organic UV filters in wastewater, in surface waters, and in fish from Swiss lakes. Environ Sci Technol 39:953–962Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zenker A, Schmutz H, Fent K (2008) Simultaneous trace determination of nine organic UV-absorbing compounds (UV filters) in environmental samples. J Chromatogr A 1202:64–74Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fent K, Zenker A, Rapp M (2010) Widespread occurrence of estrogenic UV-filters in aquatic ecosystems in Switzerland. Environ Poll 158:1817–1824Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lambropoulou DA, Giokas DL, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA, Karayannis MI (2002) Gas chromatographic determination of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and octyldimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid sunscreen agents in swimming pool and bathing waters by solid-phase microextraction. J Chromatogr A 967:243–253Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Giokas DL, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA (2004) Determination of residues of UV filters in natural waters by solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1026:289–293Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Giokas DL, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA, Lampropoulou DA (2005) Determination of UV-filter residues in bathing waters by liquid chromatography UV-diode array and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after micelle mediated extraction-solvent back extraction. J Chromatogr A 1077:19–27Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kawaguchi M, Ito R, Endo N, Sakui N, Okanouchi N, Saito K, Sato N, Shiozaki T, Nakazawa H (2006) Stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of benzophone and its derivatives in water sample. Anal Chim Acta 557:272–277Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jeon H-K, Chung Y, Ryu J-C (2006) Simultaneous determination of benzophenone-type UV filters in water and soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1131:192–202Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cuderman P, Heath E (2007) Determination of UV filters and antimicrobial agents in environmental water samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 387:1343–1350Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kasprzyk-Hordern B, Dinsdale RM, Guwy AJ (2008) Multiresidue methods for the analysis of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 391:1293–1308Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Okanouchi N, Honda H, Ito R, Kawaguchi M, Saito K, Nakazawa H (2008) Determination of benzophenones in river-water samples using drop-based liquid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal Sci 2008:627–630Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kawaguchi M, Ito R, Honda H, Endo N, Okanouchi N, Saito K, Seto N, Nakazawa H (2006) Simultaneous analyis of benzophenone sunscreen compounds in water sample by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1200:260–263Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rodil R, Moeder M (2008) Development of a method for the determination of UV filters in water samples using stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1179:81–88Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rodil R, Quintana JB, López-Mahía P, Muniategui-Lorenzo S, Prada-Rodríguez D (2008) Multiclass determination of sunscreen chemicals in water samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 80:1307–1315Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rodil R, Quintana JB, López-Mahía P, Muniategui-Lorenzo S, Prada-Rodríguez D (2009) Multi-residue analytical method for the determination of emerging pollutants in water by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1216:2958–2969Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rodil R, Schrader S, Moeder M (2009) Comparison of atmospheric pressure photoionization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the analysis of UV filters. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:580–588Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Negreira N, Rodríguez I, Ramil M, Rubí E, Cela R (2009) Sensitive detrmination of salicylate and benzophenone type UV filters in water samples using solid-phase microextraction, derivatization and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 638:36–44Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rodil M, Schrader S, Moeder M (2009) Non-porous membrane-assisted liquid–liquid extraction of UV filter compounds from water samples. J Chromatogr A 1216:4887–4894Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pedrouzo M, Borrull F, Marcé RM, Pocurull E (2009) Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for determining the presence of eleven personal care products in surface and wastewaters. J Chromatogr A 1216:6994–7000Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Negreira N, Rodríguez I, Ramil M, Rubí E, Cela R (2009) Solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of hydroxylated benzophenone UV absorbers in environmental water samples. Anal Chim Acta 654:162–170Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gómez MJ, Gómez-Ramos MM, Agüera A, Mezcua M, Herrera S, Fernández-Alba AR (2009) A new gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of target and non-target organic contaminants in waters. J Chromatogr A 1216:4071–4082Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pietrogrande MC, Basaglia G, Dondi F (2009) Signal processing to evaluate parameters affecting SPE for multi-residue analysis of personal care products. J Sep Sci 32:1249–1261Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Haunschmidt M, Klampfl CW, Buchberger W, Hertsens R (2010) Determination of organic UV filters in water by stir bar sorptive extraction and direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 397:269–275Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vidal L, Chisvert A, Canals A, Salvador A (2010) Ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction followed by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection to determine typical UV filters in surface water samples. Talanta 81:549–555Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wick A, Fink G, Ternes TA (2010) Comparison of electrospray ionization and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for multi-residue analysis of biocides, UV-filters and benzothiazoles in aqueous matrices and activated sludge by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:2088–2103Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Moeder M, Schrader S, Winkler U, Rodil R (2010) At-line microextraction by packed sorbent-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of UV filter and polycyclic musk compounds in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1217:2925–2932Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pedrouzo M, Borrull F, Marcé RM, Pocurull E (2010) Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous analysis of UV filters and antimicrobial agents in water samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 397:2833–2839Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Oliveira HM, Segundo MA, Lima JLFC, Miró M, Cerdá V (2010) On-line renewable solid-phase extraction hyphenated to liquid chromatography for the determination of UV filters using bead injection and multisyringe-lab-on-valve approach. J Chromatogr A 1217:3575–3582Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tarazona I, Chisvert A, León Z, Salvador A (2010) Determination of hydroxylated benzophenone UV filters in sea water samples by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:4771–4778Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Negreira N, Rodríguez I, Rubí E, Cela R (2010) Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rapid and sensitive determination of UV filters in environmental water samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 398:995–1004Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Liu H, Liu L, Xiong Y, Yang X, Luan T (2010) Simultaneous determination of UV filters and polycyclic musks in aqueous samples by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:6747–6753Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Matamoros V, Jover E, Bayona JM (2010) Part-per-trillion determination of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and related organic contaminants in river water by solid-phase extraction followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 82:699–706Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Zhang P-P, Shi Z-G, Yu Q-W, Feng Y-Q (2011) A new device for magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction of UV filters in environmental water samples. Talanta 83:1711–1715Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Negreira N, Rodríguez I, Rubí E, Cela R (2011) Silicone discs as disposable enrichment probes for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of UV filters in water samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 400:603–611Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Román IP, Chisvert A, Canals A (2011) Dispersive solid-phase extraction based on oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for UV-filter determination in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1218:2467–2475Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Vosough M, Mojdehl NR (2011) Fast liquid chromatography-diode array detection assisted by chemometrics for quantification of seven ultraviolet filters in effluents wastewater. Talanta 85:2175–2181Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Nguyen KTN, Scapolla C, Di Carro M, Magi E (2011) Rapid and selective determination of UV filters in seawater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with stir bar sorptive extraction. Talanta 85:2375–2384Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gómez MJ, Herrera S, Solé D, García-Calvo E, Fernández-Alba AR (2011) Automatic searching and evaluation of priority and emerging contaminants in wastewater and river water by stir bar sorptive extraction followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 83:2638–2647Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bratkovics S, Sapozhnikova Y (2011) Determination of seven commonly used organic UV filters in fresh and saline waters by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Methods 3:2943–2950Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Díaz-Cruz MS, Gago-Ferrrero P, Llorca M, Barceló D (2012) Analysis of UV filters in tap water and other clean waters in Spain. Anal Bioanal Chem 402:2325–2333Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ge D, Lee HK (2012) Ionic liquid based hollow fiber supported liquid phase microextraction of ultraviolet filters. J Chromatogr A 1229:1–5Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Basaglia G, Pietrogrande MC (2012) Optimization of a SPME/GC/MS method for the simultaneous determination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in waters. Chromatographia 75:361–370Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zhang H, Lee HK (2012) Simultaneous determination of ultraviolet filters in aqueous samples by plunger-in-needle solid-phase microextraction with graphene-based sol-gel coating as sorbent coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 742:67–73Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zhang Y, Lee HK (2012) Ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples. Anal Chim Acta 750:120–126Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhang Y, Lee HK (2012) Determination of ultraviolet filters in water samples by vortex-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1249:25–31Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ge D, Lee HK (2012) A new 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for the determination of organic ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples. J Chromatogr A 1251:27–32Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Magi E, Di Carro M, Scapolla C, Nguyen KTN (2012) Stir bar sorptive extraction and LC-MS/MS for trace analysis of UV filters in different water matrices. Chromatographia 75:973–982Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Magi E, Scapolla C, Di Carro M, Rivaro P, Nguyen KTN (2013) Emerging pollutants in aquatic environments: monitoring of UV filters in urban wastewater treatment plants. Anal Methods 5:428–433Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gracia-Lor E, Martínez M, Sancho JV, Peñuela G, Hernández F (2012) Multi-class determination of personal care products and pharmaceuticals in environmental and wastewater samples by ultra-high performance liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Talanta 99:1011–1023Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pintado-Herrera MG, González-Mazo E, Lara-Martín PA (2013) Environmentally friendly analysis of emerging contaminants by pressurized hot water extraction-stir bar sorptive extraction-derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:401–411Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zhang Y, Lee HK (2013) Determination of ultraviolet filters in environmental water samples by temperature-controlled ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction. J Chromatogr A 1271:56–61Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Maijó I, Fontanals N, Borrull F, Neusüβ C, Calull M, Aguilar C (2013) Determination of UV filters in river water samples by in-line SPE-CE-MS. Electrophoresis 34:374–382Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zhang Y, Lee HK (2013) Liquid phase microextraction using knitting wool as the extractant phase holder before chromatographic analysis: a new approach for trace analysis. J Chromatogr A 1273:12–17Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ku Y-C, Leong M-I, Wang W-T, Huang S-D (2013) Up-and-down shaker-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction of benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters. J Sep Sci 36:1470–1477Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Gago-Ferrero P, Mastroianni N, Díaz-Cruz MS, Barceló D (2013) Fully automated determination of nine ultraviolet filters and transformation products in natural waters and wastewaters by on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1294:106–116Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Li J, Ma L, Tang M, Xu L (2013) C12-Ag wire as solid-phase microextraction fiber for determination of benzophenone ultraviolet filters in river water. J Chromatogr A 1298:1–8Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wu J-W, Chen H-C, Ding W-H (2013) Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction plus simultaneous silylation for rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters in aqueous samples. J Chromatogr A 1302:20–27Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Xue L-K, Ma W-M, Zhang D-X, Du X-Z (2013) Ultrasound-assisted liquid–liquid microextraction based on an ionic liquid for preconcentration and determination of UV filters in environmental water samples. Anal Methods 5:4213–4219Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Almeida C, Stepkowska A, Alegre A, Nogueira JMF (2013) Determination of trace levels of benzophenone-type ultra-violet filters in real matrices by bar adsorptive micro-extraction using selective sorbent phases. J Chromatogr A 1311:1–10Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Da Silva CP, Emídio ES, de Marchi MRR (2013) UV filters in water samples: experimental design on the SPE optimization followed by GC-MS/MS analysis. J Braz Chem Soc 24:1433–1441Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Caldas SS, Bolzan CM, Guilherme JR, Silveira MAK, Escarrone ALV, Primel EG (2013) Determination of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides in surface and treated waters: method development and survey. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5855–5863Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gilart N, Miralles N, Marcé RM, Borrull F, Fontanals N (2013) Novel coatings for stir bar sorptive extraction to determine pharmaceuticals and personal care products in environmental waters by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 774:51–60Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Benedé JL, Chisvert A, Salvador A, Sánchez-Quiles T-SA (2014) Determination of UV filters in both soluble and particulate fractions of seawaters by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 812:50–58Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kotnik K, Kosjek T, Krajnc U, Heath E (2014) Trace analysis of benzophenone-derived compounds in surface waters and sediments using solid-phase extraction and microwave-assisted extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 406:3179–3190Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Winkler M, Headley JV, Peru KM (2000) Optimization of solid-phase microextraction for the gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of synthetic musk fragrances in water samples. J Chromatogr A 903:203–210Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Osemwengie LI, Steinberg S (2001) On-site solid-phase extraction and laboratory analysis of ultra-trace synthetic musks in municipal sewage effluent using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. J Chromatogr A 932:107–118Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    García-Jares C, Llompart M, Polo M, Salgado C, Macias S, Cela R (2002) Optimization of a solid-phase microextraction method for synthetic musk compounds in water. J Chromatogr A 963:277–285Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Polo M, García-Jares C, Llompart M, Cela R (2007) Optimization of a sensitive method for the determination of nitro musk fragrances in waters by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection using factorial experimental design. Anal Bioanal Chem 388:1789–1798Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Regueiro J, Llompart M, García-Jares C, García-Monteagudo JC, Cela R (2008) Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction of emergent contaminants and pesticides in environmental waters. J Chromatogr A 1190:27–38Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Wang Y-C, Ding W-H (2009) Determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in water by microwave-assisted headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1216:6858–6863Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Panagiotou AN, Sakkas VA, Albanis TA (2009) Application of chemometric assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction to the determination of personal care products in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 649:135–140Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lv Y, Yuan T, Hu J, Wang W (2009) Simultaneous determination of trace polycyclic and nitro musks in water samples using optimized solid-phase extraction by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Anal Sci 25:1125–1130Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Silva ARM, Nogueira JMF (2010) Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of musk compounds in environmental water matrices. Anal Bioanal Chem 396:1853–1862Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ramírez N, Marcé RM, Borrull F (2011) Development of a stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determining synthetic musks in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1218:156–161Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Arbulu M, Sampedro MC, Unceta N, Gómer-Caballero A, Goicolea MA, Barrio RJ (2011) A retention time locked gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method based on stir-bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption for automated determination of synthetic musk fragrances in natural and wastewaters. J Chromatogr A 1218:3048–3055Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    López-Nogueroles M, Chisvert A, Salvador A, Carretero A (2011) Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of nitro musks in surface water and wastewater samples. Talanta 85:1990–1995Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Yang C-Y, Ding W-H (2012) Determination of synthetic polycyclic musks in aqueous samples by ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 402:1723–1730Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ramírez N, Borrull F, Marcé RM (2012) Simultaneous determination of parabens and synthetic musks in water by stir-bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 35:580–588Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Vallecillos L, Pocurull E, Borrull F (2012) Fully automated ionic liquid-based headspace single drop microextraction coupled to GC-MS/MS to determine musk fragrances in environmental water samples. Talanta 99:824–832Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Posada-Ureta O, Olivares M, Navarro P, Vallejo A, Zuloaga O, Etxebarria N (2012) Membrane assisted solvent extraction coupled to large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of synthetic musks in environmental water samples. J Chromatogr A 1227:38–47Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    López-Nogueroles M, Lordel-Madeleine S, Chisvert A, Salvador A, Pichon V (2013) Development of a selective solid phase extraction method for nitro musk compounds in environmental waters using a molecularly imprinted sorbent. Talanta 110:128–134Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cavalheiro J, Prieto A, Monperrus M, Etxebarria N (2013) Zuloaga O (2013) Determination of polycyclic and nitro musks in environmental water samples by means of microextraction by packed sorbents coupled to large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Anal Chim Acta 773:68–75Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wang L, McDonald JA, Khan SJ (2013) Enantiomeric analysis of polycyclic musks in water by chiral gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1303:66–75Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Chung W-H, Tzing S-H, Ding W-H (2013) Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the rapid analysis of synthetic polycyclic musks using thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1307:34–40Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Canosa P, Rodríguez I, Rubí E, Cela R (2005) Optimization of solid-phase microextraction conditions for the determination of triclosan and possible related compounds in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1072:107–115Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Canosa P, Rodríguez I, Rubí E, Bollaín MH, Cela R (2006) Optimisation of a solid-phase microextraction method for the determination of parabens in water samples at the low ng per litre level. J Chromatogr A 1124:3–10Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Wu J-L, Lam NP, Martens D, Kettrup A, Cai Z (2007) Triclosan determination in water related to wastewater treatment. Talanta 72:1650–1654Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Zhao R-S, Yuan J-P, Li H-F, Wang X, Jiang T, Lin J-M (2007) Nonequilibrium hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization for the measurement of triclosan in aqueous samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 387:2911–2915Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rafoth A, Gabriel S, Sacher F, Brauch H-J (2007) Analysis of isothiazolinones in environmental waters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1164:74–81Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Silva ARM, Nogueira JMF (2008) New approach on trace analysis of triclosan in personal care products, biological and environmental matrices. Talanta 74:1498–1504Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kawaguchi M, Itro R, Honda H, Endo N, Okanouchi N, Saito K, Seto Y, Nakazawa H (2008) Stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography.mass spectrometry for trace analysis of triclosan in water sample. J Chromatogr A 1206:196–199Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Blanco E, Casais MC, Mejuto MC, Cela R (2008) Simultaneous determination of p-hydroxybenzoic acid parabens by capillary electrophoresis with improved sensitivity in nonaqueous media. Electrophoresis 29:3229–3238Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Blanco E, Casais MC, Mejuto MC, Cela R (2009) Combination of off-line solid-phase extraction and on-column sample stacking for sensitive determination of parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in waters by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Anal Chim Acta 647:104–111Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Saraji M, Mirmahdieh S (2009) Single-drop microextraction followed by in-syringe derivatization and GC-MS detection for the determination of parabens in water and cosmetic products. J Sep Sci 32:988–995Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Montes R, Rodríguez I, Rubí E, Cela R (2009) Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction applied to the simultaneous derivatization and concentration of triclosan and methyltriclosan in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1216:205–210Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Guo J-H, Li X-H, Cao X-L, Li Y, Wang X-Z, Xu X-B (2009) Determination of triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-triclosan in aqueous samples by dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with rapid liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A 1216:3038–3043Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    González-Mariño I, Quintana JB, Rodríguez I, Cela R (2009) Simultaneous determination of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in water by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 23:1756–1766Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Regueiro J, Becerril E, Garcia-Jares C, Llompart M (2009) Trace analysis of parabens, triclosan and related chlorophenols in water by headspace solid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1216:4693–4702Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Regueiro J, Llompart M, Psillakis E, Garcia-Monteagudo JC, Garcia-Jares C (2009) Ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction of phenolic preservatives in water. Talanta 79:1387–1397Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Klein DR, Flannelly DF, Schultz MM (2010) Quantitative determination of triclocarban in wastewater effluent by stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid desorption-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:1742–1747Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Zhao R-S, Wang X, Sun J, Wang S-S, Yuan J-P, Wang X-K (2010) Trace determination of triclosan and triclocarban in environmental water samples with ionic liquid dispersive liquid-phase microextraction prior to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 397:1627–1633Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Villaverde-de-Sáa E, González-Mariño I, Quintana JB, Rodil R, Rodríguez I, Cela R (2010) In-sample acetylation-non-porous membrane-assisted liquid–liquid extraction for the determination of parabens and triclosan in water samples. Anal Bioanal Chem 397:2559–2568Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Speksnijder P, van Ravestijn J, de Voogt P (2010) Trace analysis of isothiazolinones in water samples by large-volume direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1217:5184–5189Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cheng C-Y, Wang Y-C, Ding W-H (2011) Determination of triclosan in aqueous samples using solid-phase extraction followed by on-line derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Sci 27:197–202Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Casas Ferreira AM, Möeder M, Fernández Laespada ME (2011) GC-MS determination of parabens, triclosan and methyl triclosan in water by in situ derivatisation and stir-bar sorptive extraction. Anal Bioanal Chem 399:945–953Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    González-Mariño I, Quintana JB, Rodríguez I, Schrader S, Moeder M (2011) Fully automated determination of parabens, triclosan and methyl triclosan in wastewater by microextraction by packed sorbent and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 684:59–66Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Zheng C, Zhao J, Bao P, Gao J, He J (2011) Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction based on solidification of floating organic droplet followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of triclosan and 2,4-dichlorophenol in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1218:3830–3836Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Prichodko A, Janenaite E, Smitiene V, Vickackaite V (2012) Gas chromatographic determination of parabens after in-situ derivatization and dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction. Acta Chromatogr 24:589–601Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Çabuk H, Akyüz M, Ata S (2012) A simple solvent collection technique for a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction of parabens from aqueous samples using low-density organic solvent. J Sep Sci 35:2645–2652Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Chen Z-F, Ying G-G, Lai H-J, Chen F, Su H-C, Liu Y-S, Peng F-Q, Zhao J-L (2012) Determination of biocides in different environmental matrices by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Bioanal Chem 404:3175–3188Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Abbasghorbani M, Attaran A, Payehghadr M (2013) Solvent-assisted dispersive micro-SPE by using aminopropyl-functionalized magnetite nanoparticle followed by GC-PID for quantification of parabens in aqueous matrices. J Sep Sci 36:311–319Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Shih H-K, Lin C-W, Ponnusamy VK, Ramkumar A, Jen J-F (2013) Rapid analysis of triclosan in water samples using an in-tube ultrasonication assisted emulsification microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Anal Methods 5:2352–2359Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gorga M, Petrovic M, Barceló D (2013) Multi-residue analytical method for the determination of endocrine disruptors and related compounds in river and waste water using dual column liquid chromatography switching system coupled to mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr A 1295:57–66Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Alcudia-León MC, Lucena R, Cárdenas S, Valcárcel M (2013) Determination of parabens in waters by magnetically confined hydrophobic nanoparticle microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Microchem J 110:643–648Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Mudiam MKR, Jain R, Singh R (2014) Application of ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and automated in-port silylation for the simultaneous determination of phenolic endocrine disruptor chemicals in water samples by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Anal Methods 6:1802–1810Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Knepper TP (2004) Analysis and mass spectrometric characterization of the insect repellent Bayrepel and its main metabolite Bayrepel-acid. J Chromatogr A 1046:159–166Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Standler A, Schatzl A, Klampfl CW, Buchberger W (2004) Determination of the insect repellent Bayrepel® in pool and lake water by gas chromatography after preconcentration with solid-phase extraction and stir-bar-sorptive extraction. Microchim Acta 148:151–156Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rodil R, Moeder M (2008) Stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of insect repelling substances in water samples. J Chromatogr A 1178:9–16Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Almeida C, Strzelczyk R, Nogueira JMF (2014) Improvements on bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) technique-Application for the determination of insecticide repellents in environmental water matrices. Talanta 120:126–134Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Tanwar S, Di Carro M, Ianni C, Magi E (2014) Occurrence of PCPs in natural waters from Europe. Hdb Env Chem. doi: 10.1007/698_2014_276
  139. 139.
    Sun Q, Lv M, Li M, Yu C-P (2014) Personal care products in the aquatic environment in China. Hdb Env Chem. doi: 10.1007/698_2014_284
  140. 140.
    Bernot MJ, Justice JR (2014) Survey of personal care products in the United States. Hdb Env Chem. doi: 10.1007/698_2014_288

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Analytical ChemistryUniversity of ValenciaValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations